Matthew 16:13-20 – Building a Hades-Proof Congregation
|| Mark 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-21
MT16:13 Upon arriving in the area of Caesarea Philippi Jesus asked his disciples, “Whom do people say the Son of Humankind is?” MT16:14 The disciples answered, “Some: John the Baptist; others: Elijah; still others: Jeremiah or one of the prophets.” MT16:15 Jesus asked them, “But, you [disciples], who do you think me to be?” MT16:16 Simon Peter responded, “You are the Messiah, the Son of The Living God!” MT16:17 Jesus replied to Peter: “Blessed are you, Simon Bar-jonah, because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, rather it was my heavenly Father. MT16:18 And so I tell you: You are Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church and the gates of Hades will never triumph over it! MT16:19 I will give you [Peter] the keys of the Realm of Heaven. What ever you [Peter] bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you release upon earth will be released in heaven.” MT16:20 Then Jesus gave the disciples a rebuke so that they would tell no one that he was the Messiah.
 Caesarea Philippi: After 70 AD, General Titus held gladiatorial shows here. He used captured Jews as victims [The Jewish War, VII, 23, 24 (ii, 1)]. The name was changed (after 70 AD) to its older name Paneas. In Arabic this became Banyas. The use of Caesar Philippi would argue the Gospel of Matthew would have had to be written before 70 AD. See the book The Jesus Papyrus. Josephus describes a deep cave filled with still water that is the spring source of the Jordan river. It was turned into royal gardens.
 Whom do people say: What is the talk or gossip among the crowds? The time has approached for Jesus to begin to declare himself more clearly to his disciples.
 John the Baptist: Compare Matthew 14:2 and Luke 9:7. Herod thought John so great he may well return from the dead.
 Elijah: Jesus is to explain this later. Compare Malachi 4:5.
 Jeremiah: Some Jews thought Jeremiah had taken the Ark of the Covenant and hid it on Mount Nebo. Tradition had it before Messiah appeared Jeremiah would return with the Ark (See 2 Maccabees 2:1-12; 2 Esdras 2:18).
 Who do you think me to be: After more than a year or two of association with Jesus he asks for their opinion as to his identity. Peter speaks for the apostles.
 You are the Messiah: Or, the Christ, that is, The Christened (Anointed) One. Likely the original in Hebrew would have been Ma·shi’ach. This designation is drawn from Psalm 2:1, Isaiah 61:1, and Daniel 9:26.
 The Son of The Living God: Nowhere does Peter suspect that Jesus was God Himself. Everywhere he is the “Son of The God” – the same conclusion reached by John 20:31. Peter writes later about a further confirmation of the Sonship of Christ (2 Peter 1:17). The idea of God’s Son is drawn largely from Psalm 2:6, 7 and Psalm 89:26 (Compare 2 Samuel 7:14).
 Simon Bar-jonah: Or, Son of Jonah. The “Bar” in place of “Ben” hints to an Aramaic original. Peter’s full name in Aramaic. “Simon” is related to the Hebrew root “hear” or “listen.”
 Reveal this to you: The Greek for “reveal” is APECALYPSEN. This could have been revealed to Peter by understanding, for example, Psalm 2:1, 7 (a text he later quotes in Acts 4:24f) where the Christ is also the Son of God. Additionally, he had been eyewitness to the miracles of Jesus.
 You are Peter: The Greek is the masculine “Rock.” Or, NEB: Peter, the Rock; TCNT: Peter, a rock.
 This rock: Or, TCNT: Your name is Peter, a rock, and upon this Rock I will build my Church; WMS: your name from now on is to be Peter, Rock, and on a massive rock like this I will build my Church; MON: you are Petros (a rock), and on this petra (rock) I will build my church. The Greek has PETRA here, the feminine of Petros. Some view this as Peter (Barclay), other’s Christ (Augustine). The Catholic view is that the Church would be built upon the rock Peter. Some Protestants make much of the masculine and feminine differences of the two words (PETROS, PETRA). However, the context seems directed at Peter in these verses; and, the facts in Acts indicate Peter’s prominence in presenting the Evangel to first the Jews, then the Samaritans, and, finally, the Non-Jews (Galatians 2:7).
 I will build my Church: The Greek ECCLESIA is recognizable throughout Europe as the word for a “church.” Some render it “congregation” or “assembly.” The word means EK(=out)KALEO(=call). The old Scottish word “church” is from KIRK an Anglicization of the Greek KYRIOS (Lord).
 The gates of Hades: Research the word HADES for details. Or, KJV: hell; GDSP: powers of death; LAM: doors of Sheol. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:50-55.
 Never triumph: Or, KJV: no prevail; GDSP: not subdue; WMS: never overthrow; WEY: no triumph over.
 I will give you: The Greek “you” is singular and refers to Peter. Note the immediate context is the rock upon which Jesus will build his Church.
 The keys of the Realm: Not the keys of heaven as in the mistaken traditional picture. Rather, it refers to the door into the Church, or the realm of profession. Some take these keys as three in number and reference their use in Acts chapters 2, 8, and 10 – the Jews, Samaritans, and Non-Jews as the first members of the church or kingdom of Christ (Colossians 1:13).
 What ever you [Peter] bind on earth: An example of this is seen in the cases of the lying materialists Ananias and Sapphira (Acts chapter 5).
 Bound: Or, KJV: bind; RIEU: forbid; MOF: prohibit.
 Release: Or, KJV: loose; RIEU: allow; MOF: permit; TCNT: allow. Compare John 20:23 and Matthew 18:18.
 A rebuke: Or, KJV: strictly charged; KNX: strictly forbade; BECK: warned; NEB: strict orders. It is not a mere suggestion. Another rebuke, even more stern, is about to happen.
 Tell no one that he was the Messiah: Though the disciples understand the fundamental truth that Jesus is the Messiah and the Son of God they still do not comprehend other prophetic truths which will now be explained. The Nazarene wanted people to arrive at their own conclusions without a public proclamation. The disciples were not yet ready to explain all that being the Messiah meant as the account goes on to demonstrate in Peter’s case. Jesus gives this warning several times (Matthew 8:4; Mark 7:36; 8:30; 9:9; Luke 5:14; 8:56; 9:21)..
Matthew 16 Asking for signs from heaven
Matthew 16 Calvin’s view
Matthew 16 Spurgeon’s view
Matthew 16:1-4 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Signs of the Times
Matthew 16:5-12 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Watch Out for the Leaven of False Teaching
Matthew 2:16-18 – Slaughter of the Innocents
Matthew 13:44 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Parable of the Treasure
- A rich history of ancient and Biblical Jordan to explore
- Self inflicted misery #4 To whom to listen
- Self inflicted misery #5 A prophet without a hedge around him
- Jesus begotten Son of God #3 Messiah or Anointed one
- Jesus begotten Son of God #16 Prophet to be heard
- The saviour Jesus his human side
- Marriage of Jesus 8 Wife of Yahweh
- Memorizing wonderfully 31 Son of David and God’s Kingdom
- Servant of his Father
- Anointing of Christ as Prophetic Rehearsal of the Burial rites
- United people under Christ
- Congregate, to gather, to meet
- Congregation – Congregatie
- Meeting – Vergadering
- Democratic principles for the church of today
- Intentions of an Ecclesia
- A sheep or not a sheep?
- Do You love Me?
- Ministry of Congregating
- All you, people
- In the Congregation
- Bearing Witness
- DNA in a Congregation
- The Beauty of “The Church”
- Counting the cost: Mark 14
- Study | Church Beginnings
- 1A. Called To Be a Disciple
- 3. Confessed Jesus To Be the Christ
- Simon Called Peter
- Jesus Commissions Peter
- Peter the First Pope?
- Simon Peter and Pope Peter the same?
- The ‘Simon Peter’ Paradox
- Simon Peter is Cool
- 1B. Appointed To Be an Apostle
- Michael Kok: Hinderance to Petrine Authorship of 1 Peter
- The Calling and Ministry of Peter – A Night of Worship/Illustrated Sermon
- Study | Experiencing Glory