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Posts tagged ‘Apostle Peter’

Matthew 17:24-27 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Tax-free Sons No Stumbling-block

Matthew 17:24-27 – Tax-free Sons No Stumbling-block

MT17:24 Having arrived in Capernaum certain men collecting the [Temple-tax] of two drachmas[1] approached Peter, asking: “Does your teacher refuse to pay the [temple tax]?” MT17:25 Peter answered, “Yes.”[2] But when Peter entered the house, Jesus anticipated him[3] by asking, “Simon, what is your view?[4] From whom do earth’s rulers receive duty and tax?[5] From their sons or from aliens?”[6] MT17:26 Peter answered, “From the aliens.” Then, Jesus said to him, “Really, then, the sons are free [from taxes]. MT17:27 But so we might not stumble them:[7] go fish in the sea. The first fish you hook pull in and when you open its mouth you will find a stater [coin].[8] Take the coin and give it to them for me and you.”

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[1] [Temple-tax] of two drachmas: Or, KJV: received tribute money; ASV: half-shekel; TCNT: temple-tax. About $1.30 or a week’s wages. Compare the tabernacle tax (Exodus 30:12-16; 2 Chronicles 24:6, 9; Nehemiah 10:32).

[2] Yes: Peter speaks incorrectly.

[3] Jesus anticipated him: Or, KJV: Jesus prevented him; WMS: – he got there ahead of Simon –; RSV: Jesus spoke to him first.

[4] Simon, what is your view: Or, KJV: what thinkest thou; BER: what is your idea; MON: how does it seem to you. There is no direct correction or rebuke.

[5] Duty and tax: Or, KJV: custom or tax; RHM: dues or tax; KNX: customs or taxes; RIEU: import or capitation taxes; TCNT: taxes or tribute. This subject comes up a couple times: research the word tax.

[6] Sons or from aliens: Or, KJV: their own children, or of strangers; RIEU: citizens or on foreigners; MON: from their own people or from aliens.

[7] Not stumble them: The Greek is SCANDALISOMEN. Or, KJV: offend; NEB: cause difficulties; WMS: not influence them to do any thing wrong; TCNT: may not shock them.

[8] A stater [coin]: Or, KJV: a piece of money; ASV: a shekel; RIEU: silver coins; MOF: four drachmas. About four days wages.

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Preceding

Matthew 17:1-9 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Transfiguration Vision

Matthew 17:10-13 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Elijah Has Already Come

Matthew 17:14-21 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Faith the Size of a Mustard Seed

Matthew 17:22-23 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Grief and Jesus’ Prediction of His Death

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Related

  1. Exodus 30:11-16 The Census Tax
  2. The Fishy Temple Tax
  3. Matthew 17, the Ttansfiguration, the healing of a boy with a demon, the “temple tax”.
  4. No Stumbling Block
  5. Peter and John — Matthew 17:24-27
  6. Ancient Beka Found Near Temple Mount in Jerusalem
  7. Trend Update: Temple Coin with Trump Likeness in High Demand, March 2018

Matthew 17:1-9 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Transfiguration Vision

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN:
A TRANSFIGURED SON AND AN EMPTY POCKET

[“Glory and Taxes”]
(Key word: “Listen!”)

Matthew 17:1-9 – Transfiguration Vision

|| Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36

MT17:1 Now after six days[1] Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John[2] (the brother of James) and ascended with them to a very secluded place on a tall mountain.[3] MT17:2 And right before them Jesus was metamorphosed[4] – his face illuminated like the sun[5] and his cloak as white light.[6] MT17:3 And, look! they could see Moses and Elijah[7] speaking with Jesus. MT17:4 Peter responded and said to Jesus, “Master, if you wish I shall make three tents[8] – one for you and Moses and Elijah.” MT17:5 Yet while Peter was talking, look! a shining cloud rested over them, and, look! a Voice came from the cloud,[9] saying, “This is my beloved Son whom I approve[10] – listen to him.”[11] MT17:6 Now, hearing this the disciples were frightened and fell on their faces. MT17:7 Jesus approached the disciples and touching them, he said, “Rise and do not be afraid.” MT17:8 But, when the disciples looked up they saw nothing but Jesus himself. MT17:9 Now while descending the mountain Jesus charged[12] the three disciples: “Tell no one[13] about the vision[14] until the Son of Humankind[15] is raised from among those dead.”[16]

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[1] After six days: Mark 9:2 agrees though Luke 9:28 says, “But it happened about eight days after…” Some see the transfiguration as the fulfillment of what the Nazarene said earlier (Matthew 16:28). It ought to be observed that there is nothing in the “vision” which speaks of the arrival of Jesus’ kingdom in power.

[2] Peter, James, and John: Are these the primary foundation stones of the Congregation? Note in Mark 13:3 Andrew is added to a select group among the apostles.

[3] A very secluded place on a tall mountain: Or, KJV: into an high mountain apart; KNX: where they were along; LB: a high and lonely hill. Some believe this is that 9,000-foot mountain nearest Caesar Philippi, Mount Hermon.

[4] Jesus was metamorphosed: The Greek is METAMORPHOTHE. Or, KJV: transfigured; RHM: transformed; WMS: his appearance was changed; PME: his whole appearance changed before their eyes. Note a form of the word at Romans 12:2 and 2 Corinthians 3:18. According to Luke 9:29 this occurred “as he was praying.”

[5] Face illuminated like the sun: Or KJV: his faced did shine as the sun. Compare Daniel 12:3; Matthew 13:43; Revelation 1:14. Note, Exodus 34:29: “Moses did not know that the skin of his face emitted rays.” (NW) It is impossible not to include as a cross reference 2 Corinthians 3:7, 10, 15, 18 and the relationship with the “new covenant.”

[6] His cloak as white light: Or, ASV: garment became white as the light; RIEU: white as light itself. Mark 9:3 adds: “… far whiter than any clothes cleaner on earth could whiten them.” (Revelation 1:16)

[7] Moses and Elijah: Some see these two as representing the Law and the Prophets pointing to Messiah. The three are called “prophets.” The three all fast for 40 days. All three hear the Voice of God. All three are associated with the Name of God. All three are involved in the saving acts of God. Compare Malachi 4:4, 5. See notes on Revelation 11:5, 6.

[8] I shall make three tents: We note the spontaneity of Peter. Perhaps he expects these three to remain during the chilly night. He may create an evening bivouac from boughs and limbs of trees.

[9] Voice came from the cloud: This is the second of three cases where the Voice of God is heard, all in the presence of Jesus (Matthew 3:17; John 12:28). Peter gives his own inspired interpretation of this event at 2 Peter 1:16-18. The Voice is “God the Father.” The main point is the revelation of the “power and presence (PAROUSIA)” of our Lord Jesus Christ. Some wish to make this the second coming or that Parousia future from the days of Jesus and the disciples. (Matthew 24:3; 1 Corinthians 15:23; 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 3:13; 4:15; 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:1, 8; James 5:7, 8; 2 Peter 3:4; 1 John 2:28) Others see the parousia here as that first coming of the Nazarene.

[10] This is my beloved Son whom I approve: These are the words heard by John the Baptist and the Nazarene at his baptism (see notes at Matthew 3:17; Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22). Peter records the Voice at 2 Peter 1:17. The phrase is similar to a conflate of Psalm 2:7 and Isaiah 42:1. Peter is to quote the context of Psalm 2:7 later at Acts 4:24; and, Paul Psalm 2:7 exactly at Acts 13:33, 34. Both apply Psalm 2 to that period upon the resurrection and ascension of Jesus to heaven as envisioned by Daniel 7:13. It is curious that this is witnessed only by three of the apostles and these are later told not to tell anyone (the other apostles?) of the vision (Matthew 17:9).

[11] Listen to him: Here is the main point of the whole episodic vision: to charge these three apostles to hear or listen in obedience to the Son (Note Hebrews 1:1). Matthew was not present on this occasion so must have learned the details from Peter, James, or John; and this after the resurrection of the Son of Humankind. “Listen” is a word occurring often in the Gospels: Matthew 11:15; 13:9, 18, 43; 15:10; Mark 4:3, 9, 20, 23, 33; 7:14; Luke 8:8, 18; 14:35; John 10:3, 16, 27.

[12] Jesus charged: Or, ASV: commanded; KNX: ward; MOF: ordered.

[13] Tell no one: We may assume this included the other nine apostles. What an awesome charge to confidence – a lesson for many an elder to keep confidentiality. On this matter compare Paul’s own at 2 Corinthians 12:4.

[14] The vision: The appearance of “Moses” and “Elijah” were visionary not the real persons alive. One may ask how these men recognized Moses and Elijah?

[15] Son of Humankind: Search or Find Son of Man or Son of Humankind.

[16] Raised from among those dead: Or, KJV: risen again from the dead; MON: raised from the dead. The dead themselves are not to be raised until, a) the Parousia of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:23); and, b) the end of the Thousand Years (1 Corinthians 15:24; Revelation 20:5).

 

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Preceding

Matthew 16:24-28 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: A Disciple Must Disown Self

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Related

  1. “Listen to Him!”
  2. Matthew 17 – The Mount of Transfiguration
  3. Matthew 17:1-8 The Terrifying Transfiguration
  4. Tip of the Day, September 19 Lessons of the Transfiguration
  5. Monday Motivation: The Revealing of Glory
  6. On a high mountain
  7. On the Mountain
  8. What Happened On The Mountain; Learning Under Jesus
  9. Transfiguration
  10. The Transfiguration
  11. The Transfiguration the Feast of the Transfiguration,
  12. Here We Read About The Wonderful Transfiguration Of Jesus!
  13. The Transfiguration of Our Lord
  14. Divine Glory and Sacrificial Love
  15. God’s Voice is Heard at the Transfiguration
  16. The Glory of Jesus Christ is Revealed at the Transfiguration
  17. They Saw No One but Jesus Only
  18. Does the Father affirm Jesus the Messiah is his Son?
  19. She Reads Truth | Matthew 17 & 18
  20. Transfiguration – Divinization and the Transmigration of Souls
  21. Transfiguring Humanity—Reflections on the Transfiguration of Christ
  22. Moses, Elijah and Jesus (Plus Four) Meet on a Mountain: The Feast of the Transfiguration
  23. The Transfiguration of Christ
  24. The Transfiguration of the Lord
  25. 4. Witnessed the Transfiguration of Jesus
  26. Elijah & Elisha
  27. How Not to Be Terrified
  28. Acknowledge the Glory In You
  29. The Disciples’ Response to the Transfiguration

Calvin’s view on taking up the cross

24. Then Jesus said to his disciples.

As Christ saw that Peter had a dread of the cross, and that all the rest were affected in the same way, he enters into a general discourse about bearing the cross, and does not limit his address to the twelve apostles, but lays down the same law for all the godly. {1 } We have already met with a statement nearly similar, (#Mt 10:38). {2 } But in that passage the apostles were only reminded of the persecution which awaited them, as soon as they should begin to discharge their office; while a general instruction is here conveyed, and the initiatory lessons, so to speak, inculcated on all who profess to believe the Gospel.

If any man will come after me.

These words are used for the express purpose of refuting the false views of Peter {3 } Presenting himself to every one as an example of self-denial and of patience, he first shows that it was necessary for him to endure what Peter reckoned to be inconsistent with his character, and next invites every member of his body to imitate him. The words must be explained in this manner:

“If any man would be my disciple, let him follow me by denying himself and taking up his cross, or, let him conform himself to my example.”

The meaning is, that none can be reckoned to be the disciples of Christ unless they are true imitators of him, and are willing to pursue the same course.

He lays down a brief rule for our imitation, in order to make us acquainted with the chief points in which he wishes us to resemble him. It consists of two parts, self-denial and a voluntary bearing of the cross. Let him deny himself. This self-denial is very extensive, and implies that we ought to give up our natural inclinations, and part with all the affections of the flesh, and thus give our consent to be reduced to nothing, provided that God lives and reigns in us. We know with what blind love men naturally regard themselves, how much they are devoted to themselves, how highly they estimate themselves. But if we desire to enter into the school of Christ, we must begin with that folly to which Paul (#1Co 3:18) exhorts us, becoming fools, that we may be wise; and next we must control and subdue all our affections.

And let him take up his cross. He lays down this injunction, because, though there are common miseries to which the life of men is indiscriminately subjected, yet as God trains his people in a peculiar manner, in order that they may be conformed to the image of his Son, we need not wonder that this rule is strictly addressed to them. It may be added that, though God lays both on good and bad men the burden of the cross, yet unless they willingly bend their shoulders to it, they are not said to bear the cross; for a wild and refractory horse cannot be said to admit his rider, though he carries him. The patience of the saints, therefore, consists in bearing willingly the cross which has been laid on them. {4 } Luke adds the word daily  —  let him take up his cross Daily  —  which is very emphatic; for Christ’s meaning is, that there will be no end to our warfare till we leave the world. Let it be the uninterrupted exercise of the godly, that when many afflictions have run their course, they may be prepared to endure fresh afflictions.

– John Calvin

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Preceding

Matthew 10:24-31 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Do Not Fear – Preach!

Matthew 10:32-39 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: I Came to Cause Division

Matthew 12:46-50 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The True Family of Messiah

Matthew 16 Asking for signs from heaven

Matthew 16 Calvin’s view

Matthew 16 Spurgeon’s view

Matthew 16:1-4 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Signs of the Times

Matthew 16:5-12 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Watch Out for the Leaven of False Teaching

Matthew 16:13-20 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Building a Hades-Proof Congregation

Matthew 16:21-23 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Think God’s Thoughts

Matthew 16:24-28 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: A Disciple Must Disown Self

Demanding signs or denying yourself

To follow Christ

Every one who would be Jesus his follower must sacrifice himself

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Additional reading

  1. Looking for True Spirituality 1 Intro
  2. To find ways of Godly understanding
  3. A great man does not lose his self-possession when he is afflicted
  4. The blessing of a broken leg

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Related

  1. The Unvarnished Truth Matthew 10:34-39
  2. Self Denial, and the Road to Greatness
  3. Growing in fortitude
  4. What Would Jesus Do
  5. Self-Denial — Is it a requirement of following Jesus the Messiah?
  6. Denying ourselves – the key to true and lasting joy!
  7. The Discipline of Self-Denial

Matthew 16:21-23 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Think God’s Thoughts

Matthew 16:21-23 – Think God’s Thoughts

|| Mark 8:31-33

MT16:21 Beginning at this moment Jesus Christ[1] started revealing[2] to his disciples that it was a necessity he go to Jerusalem and suffer very much because of the [Jewish] elders, chief priests and scribes – to be killed and raised up the third day.[3] MT16:22 But, Peter confronted Jesus[4] and began giving him a rebuke,[5] saying, “Courage,[6] Master, that will not happen to you!” MT16:23 Now Jesus turned away [from Peter][7] and said: “Get away from me, Satan![8] You are scandalous to me[9] because you are not minding the things of The God[10] but human [thoughts]!”

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[1] Jesus Christ: The full name and title of the Nazarene is rare in the Gospels. Compare Matthew 1:1 {A bible of a genealogy of Jesus Christ, son of David, son of Abraham}; Matthew 1:18 {But thus was the genesis of Jesus Christ. His mother Mary had been promised in marriage to Joseph. Before they came together she was found to be pregnant from the holy Pneuma.}; Mark 1:1; John 1:17; John 17:3. – The Greek is KHRISTOU and means one christened or anointed. A Hebrew bias word would be, Messiah. – The form Jesus Christ occurs 150 times in the Christian Bible, the most often in the Letter to the Romans. The phrase means “Jesus the christened one; or Jesus the Messiah; Jesus the Anointed.”

[2] Started revealing: Or, KJV: shew; RIEU: began to make it clear; WMS: first time clearly taught; TCNT: began to explain; BECK: kept point out. There is now a prophetic drive toward destiny in Jerusalem.

[3] Third day: The first use of “third day” though the strong inference has been made earlier. See notes on Matthew 12:40. In the Gospel of John Jesus the subject early without the disciples understanding it (John 2:20).

[4] Peter confronted Jesus: Or, KJV: Peter took him; RHM: taking him aside; NEB: took him by the arm. Our imaginations are stirred by exactly what happened.

[5] Rebuke: Or, KNX: remonstrating; WMS: chide; NOR: protestingly said; BECK: started to correct him; MON: reprove him. The very thought startles us. Peter has just confessed the Nazarene to be the Messiah, the Son of the Living God, and he feel emboldened to correct Jesus. On the other hand it may tell us more about Jesus: that Peter would even feel he could approach his Lord with words of concern and courage. Surely, Jesus is approachable.

[6] Courage: The Greek is HILEOS. Or, KJV: be it far from thee; RHM: mercy on thee; RSV: God forbid; RIEU: heaven save you; KIT: propitious; WMS: heaven shield you; GDSP: God bless you. We see Peter’s impetuous grasp of his Master at what he has just heard as though he were at once holding him back and at the same time moving him out of range of the others.

[7] Jesus turned away [from Peter]: Or, RIEU: turned his back on him; PME: turned around. He must release himself from Peter’s panicked grasp.

[8] Get away from me, Satan: KJV: get thee behind me, Satan; PME: out of my way; NEB: away with you, Satan; TCNT: get out of my way, you Satan. The words are surely curt and firm. They are not a slip of the tongue, but thought out for Peter has a serious flaw in his character. This will manifest itself later. Jesus has already said this once before at Matthew 4:10. There it was directed to the real Satan in person. Here it is an unwilling instrument whose suggestion resists the will of God. See notes also at Matthew 12:26. Compare Mark 8:33. + Satan: The name means “Resister; Rebel; Apostate.” The name occurs 68 times with the first occurrence at 1 Chronicles 21:1. It occurs most often (17) in the Book of Job.

[9] You are scandalous to me: The Greek is SCANDALON. Or, KJV: offense; ASV: stumbling-block; KNX: a stone in my path; RIEU: a snare in my path; TCNT: hindrance; BECK: tempting me to sin.

[10] You are not minding the things of The God: Or, KJV: though savourest; RHM: not regarding; RSV: not on the side of; WEY: thoughts are not God’s thoughts; GDSP: you do not side with God; MON: no intent on what pleases God; TCNT: you look at things, not as God does. Compare 1 Corinthians 2:16. This could be rendered: You are ignorant of God’s mind but use human thinking.

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Preceding

Nazarene Commentary Matthew 4:8-11 – A Temptation to Gain World Rule

Matthew 12:22-30 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: the Charge of Demonism

Matthew 16 Asking for signs from heaven

Matthew 16 Calvin’s view

Matthew 16 Spurgeon’s view

Matthew 16:1-4 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Signs of the Times

Matthew 16:5-12 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Watch Out for the Leaven of False Teaching

Matthew 16:13-20 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Building a Hades-Proof Congregation

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Additional reading

  1. Did the Inspirator exist
  2. Most probable and accurate image of Jesus Christ according British scientists
  3. The Christ, the anointed of God

Matthew 14:23-34 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Walking on Water

Matthew 14:23-34 – Walking on Water

|| Mark 6:45-52; John 6:16-21

MT14:23 Having dismissed the crowds Jesus climbed up into the mountains[1] to a private spot to pray. He was alone at night. MT14:24 Now the boat [with the disciples] was many stadia[2] from land and was hard put by tortuous waves and a head wind.[3] MT14:25 But in the fourth night watch[4] Jesus came toward them walking upon the sea.[5] MT14:26 Seeing him walking upon the sea the disciples were troubled, and screamed in their fear, “It is a phantom!”[6] MT14:27 Instantly Jesus yelled to them, “Courage, it is me! Do not fear!” MT14:28 But, Peter answered him, “Master, if it is really you command me to come toward you over the waters!”[7] MT14:29 Jesus yelled, “Come!” And, stepping out of the boat Peter walked toward Jesus upon the waters. MT14:30 But, noticing the wind[8] Peter became fearful and started to sink. Peter screamed, “Master, save me!” MT14:31 Instantly Jesus reached out his hand and grabbed Peter, telling him, “Why did you doubt,[9] Little Faith?”[10] MT14:32 After both of them boarded the boat the wind abated. MT14:33 Now the disciples in the boat prostrated before[11] Jesus, saying, “Truthfully you are a Son of God!”[12] MT14:34 And they survived[13] and came to the shore of Gennesaret.[14]

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[1] Jesus climbed up into the mountains: Or, WEY: he climbed the hill to pray in solitude. We see Jesus now and then seeking his own privacy and solitude. It is a healthy example for others to imitate when they need quiet for thinking and meditation.

[2] Stadia: A “stadium” equaled 1/8th of a Roman mile. Or, TCNT: some miles; NWT: hundreds of yards; NJB: some furlongs. They had not made much progress against the windstorm. John 6:18 has it, “they had rowed about three or four miles.” (NWT)

[3] Tortuous waves and a head wind: Or, NEB: battling with a head-wind and a rough sea.

[4] Fourth night watch: Or, WEY: towards daybreak; NEB: between three and six in the morning. The feeding of the crowd had begun about nightfall. Jesus had spent much of the night in meditative isolation. Now it may be near dawn. The disciples have been struggling some time.

[5] Walking upon the sea: One of the most famous subjects of master painters. It would be hard to think that someone could even conceive of such a miracle, it is so ludicrous; which gives it a powerful ring of truth.

[6] Phantom: The Greek is PHANTASMA and is rendered: NWT: apparition; KJV: a spirit; ASV: ghost.

[7] To come toward you over the waters: Only Peter could think of this audacious suggestion but we applaud his conviction.

[8] Noticing the wind: Stay focused!

[9] Doubt: A word appearing in the Gospels Matthew 14:31; 21:21; 28:17; Mark 11:23; Luke 24:38.

[10] Little Faith: Literally, “one of little faith.” Or, MOF: how little you trust me; PME: you little-faith; TCNT: why did you falter; PME: what made you lose your nerve like that. See Matthew 6:30 and Matthew 8:26.

[11] Prostrated before: The Greek is PRO(=before)KUNESAN(=kiss) and is rendered: KJV: worshipped; TCNT: threw themselves on their faces before him; NWT: did obeisance. The old English word “worship” though correct in its 16th century form (used of a judge “your, Worship.”) it gives a misleading impression in modern English. See lexicons on the use of PROSKUNEO. Vine’s: “to make obeisance, do reverence to” (from pros, “towards,” and kuneo, “to kiss”), is the most frequent word rendered “to worship.” It is used of an act of homage or reverence (a) to God, e.g., Matt. 4:10; John 4:21-24; 1 Cor. 14:25; Rev. 4:10; 5:14; 7:11; 11:16; 22:9; 19:10 (2nd part); (b) to Christ, e.g., Matt. 2:2,8,11; 8:2; 9:18; 14:33; 15:25; 20:20; 28:9,17; John 9:38; Heb. 1:6, in a quotation from the Sept. of Deut. 32:43, referring to Christ’s Second Advent; (c) to a man, Matt. 18:26; (d) to the Dragon, by men, Rev. 13:4; (e) to the Beast, his human instrument, Rev. 13:4,8,12; 14:9,11; (f) the image of the Beast, Rev. 13:15; 14:11; 16:2; (g) to demons, Rev. 9:20; (h) to idols, Acts 7:43.

[12] A Son of God: The Greek is without the article and thus “a” may be inferred though most say “God’s Son.” Or, RIEU: a son of God. Compare Matthew 27:54.

[13] They survived: Or, having got through; got across.

[14] Gennesaret: Also a name for the Sea of Galilee. Josephus describes it as ‘beautiful, fruitful, and well-watered region, where walnut, palm, and olive trees thrived, and where figs and grapes were available for ten months out of the year.’ (The Jewish War, III, 516-521 [x, 8]) See Numbers 34:11 and compare Mark 6:53; Luke 5:1. This name was later changed to a Roman one. The work The Jesus Papyrus suggests this use of “Gennesaret” proves the Gospels were written before the year 50 AD during the “eye-witness period.”

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Preceding

Matthew 14:14-22 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: 5,000 Fed

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Related

  1. Walk on water
  2. Water walker
  3. Keep Your Eyes On Jesus
  4. Walking on the water
  5. Water Walker
  6. Why Did You Doubt? – Matthew 14:29-31
  7. He lives in the storm
  8. A Glimpse of your Glory, a reflection on Matthew 14.22-26
  9. Miracles Today (Matthew 14:13–21)
  10. Called onto the Water
  11. A Taizé Kind of Faith
  12. Walking on Water or Hiding in the Boat? [Mt 14:22-33]
  13. Fear vs. Imagination: Matthew 14:22-33
  14. Jesus and the Storms of Life
  15. Time For Prayer
  16. Miraculous Signs
  17. If the Boat is the Church…

Matthew 10:1-4 – Calling of the apostles – by Calvin

The calling of the Apostles is here described to us, not as on a former occasion, when the Lord Jesus Christ, intending to prepare them for their office, selected them for admission into his private circle. They are now called to immediate performance, are ordered to prepare themselves for the work, receive injunctions, and, that there may be no want of authority, are endued with the power of the Holy Spirit.
Formerly, they were held in expectation of future labour: now, Christ announces that the hour is come when they must put their hands to the work. It is proper to observe, however, that he does not as yet speak of perpetual apostleship, but only of temporary preaching, which was fitted to awaken and excite the minds of men, that they might be more attentive to hear Christ. So then they are now sent to proclaim throughout Judea that the time of the promised restoration and salvation is at hand at a future period, Christ will appoint them to spread the Gospel through the whole world. Here, he employs them as assistants only, to secure attention to him where his voice could not reach afterwards, he will commit into their hands the office of teaching which he had discharged. It is of great importance to observe this, that we may not suppose it to be a certain and fixed rule laid down for all ministers of the word, when our Lord gives instructions to the preachers of his doctrine as to what he wishes them to do for a short time. From inattention to this point many have been led astray, so as to demand from all ministers of the word, without distinction, conformity to this rule.567

Matthew 10:1. And having called the twelve disciples. The number, twelve, was intended to point out the future restoration of the Church. As the nation was descended from twelve patriarchs, so its scattered remains are now reminded by Christ of their origin, that they may entertain a fixed hope of being restored. Although the kingdom of God was not in so flourishing a state in Judea, as to preserve the nation entire, but, on the contrary, that people, which already had miserably fallen, deserved doubly to die on account of ingratitude in despising the grace which had been offered to them, yet this did not prevent a new nation from afterwards springing up. At a future period, God extended far beyond Zion the scepter of the power of his Son, and caused rivers to flow from that fountain, to water abundantly the four quarters of the world. Then God assembled his Israel from every direction, and united into one body not only the scattered and torn members, but men who had formerly been entirely alienated from the people of God.

It was not without reason, therefore, that the Lord, by appointing, as it were, twelve patriarchs, declared the restoration of the Church. Besides, this number reminded the Jews of the design of his coming; but, as they did not yield to the grace of God, he begat for himself a new Israel. If you look at the beginnings, it might appear ridiculous that Christ should bestow such honorable titles on persons who were mean and of no estimation: but their astonishing success, and the wide extension of the Church, make it evident that, in honorable rank and in numerous offspring, the apostles not only are not inferior to the patriarchs, but greatly excel them.

Gave them power. The apostles had almost no rank among men, while the commission which Christ gave them was divine. Besides, they had neither ability nor eloquence, while the excellence and novelty of their office required more than human endowments, {2 } It was therefore necessary that they should derive authority from another source. By enabling them to perform miracles, Christ invests them with the badges of heavenly power, in order to secure the confidence and veneration of the people. And hence we may infer what is the proper use of miracles. As Christ gives to them at the same time, and in immediate connection, the appointment to be preachers of the gospel and ministers of miracles, it is plain that miracles are nothing else than seals of his doctrine, and therefore we are not at liberty to dissolve this close connection. The Papists, therefore, are guilty of forgery, and of wickedly corrupting the works of God, by separating his word from miracles.

———— –

{1 } “Voulant reigler indifferemment tous ministres de la parole selon ee qui est ici dk”;  — ” wishing to regulate indiscriminately all ministers of the word according to what is here said.”

[See Calvin_Bible 04982]

2. The first, Simon, who is called Peter. The Church of Rome displays extreme folly in drawing from this passage their doctrine of the primacy. That Simon Peter was the first among the apostles we readily allow, but what was true in reference to a few persons, cannot, on any proper grounds, be extended to the whole world. Besides, the circumstance of his being mentioned first, does not imply that he possessed authority over his companions. Granting all that they ask regarding Peter, his rank will be of no avail to the Roman See, till they prove that wicked and sacrilegious apostles are Peter’s successors.

5. Into the tray of the Gentiles. This makes still more evident what I have lately hinted, that the office, which was then bestowed on the apostles, had no other object than to awaken in the Jews the hope of an approaching salvation, and thus to render them more attentive to hear Christ. On this account, he now confines within the limits of Judea their voice, which he afterwards commands to sound everywhere to the farthest limits of the world. The reason is, that he had been sent by the Father to be

the minister of circumcision, to fulfill the promises, which had anciently been given to the fathers, (#Ro 15:8).

Now God had entered into a special covenant with the family of Abraham, and therefore Christ acted properly in confining the grace of God, at the outset, to the chosen people, till the time for publishing it were fully come. But after his resurrection, he spread over all nations the blessing which had been promised in the second place, because then the veil of the temple had been rent, (#Mt 27:51), and the middle wall of partition had been thrown down, (#Eph 2:14). If any one imagine that this prohibition is unkind, because Christ does not admit the Gentiles to the enjoyment of the gospel, let him contend with God, who, to the exclusion of the rest of the world, established with the seed of Abraham alone his covenant, on which the command of Christ is founded.

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Preceding

Matthew 10:1-4 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Twelve Given Authority

Matthew 10:1-4 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Twelve Given Authority

CHAPTER TEN:
HARVEST WORKERS GIVEN INSTRUCTIONS
AND SENT OUT

Matthew 10:1-4 – The Twelve Given Authority

|| Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:13-16; Acts 1:13

The call of Andrew and Peter – Harold Copping (1863-1932) from “Scenes in the Life of our Lord” published by Religious Tract Society 1907. Location of original painting unknown.

MT10:1 Now Jesus invited his twelve disciples[1] to approach him. He gave them authority over unclean spirits to exorcise them and to cure every disease and malady. MT10:2 The names of the twelve apostles[2] are these: first, Simon[3] the one called Peter[4] and his brother Andrew;[5] and, James[6] the son of Zebedee and his brother John;[7] MT10:3 and Philip,[8] Bartholomew,[9] Thomas.[10] Matthew[11] the tax-collector, James the son of Alphaeus,[12] Thaddaeus,[13] MT10:4 Simon the Cananaean,[14] and Judas Iscariot[15] (the one who turned Jesus over[16]).

[1] Twelve disciples: The number “twelve” in this context occurs 34 times in the Christian Bible (Matthew 10:1, 2, 5, 11; 19:28; 20:17; 26:14, 20, 47; Mark 3:14, 16; 4:10; 6:7; 9:35; 10:32; 11:11; 14:10; 14:17, 20, 43; Luke 6:13; 8:1; 9:1, 12; 18:31; 22:3, 47; John 6:67, 70, 71; 20:24; Acts 6:2; 1 Corinthians 15:5; Revelation 21:14). 1 Corinthians 15:5 shows the “twelve” became an official group whether all twelve were present or not.

[2] The names of the twelve apostles: Compare the other apostolic lists and note not all remain in their same places. Other than these parallel lists some apostles are never mentioned elsewhere. Tradition and church history has certain unknown apostles leaving to far lands to evangelize while others died as martyrs. On their history see The History of the Christian Church by Eusebius; or, Foxe’s Book of Martyrs.

[3] Simon: The name means “Hear” and occurs 80 times in the Bible. Several are so named. There is another apostle named Simon. The father of Judas was named Simon. One of Jesus’ half-brothers was named Simon. The man who carried the cross (beam) for Jesus was also a Simon.

[4] Peter: See notes on Matthew 4:18. Peter is always first in the list and it is possible the Fisherman is the diamond (jasper stone) in the foundation of New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:19).

[5] Andrew: See notes on Matthew 4:18. This apostle moves to a lower number in the list of twelve.

[6] James: See notes on Matthew 4:21. This “James” is often mentioned as one of three among Peter and John (Matthew 17:1, 2; Luke 8:51; Mark 14:32-34; Mark 13:3, 4). James the apostle is always mentioned with John and often first (Matthew 4:21; 10:2; 17:1; Mark 1:19, 29; 3:17; 5:37; 9:2; 10:35, 41; 13:3; 14:33; Luke 5:10; 6:14; 8:51; 9:28, 54; Acts 1:13). James was also the name of one of Jesus’ brothers. It is this later James to whom Jesus appeared after his resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:8) and who wrote the epistle after his name.

[7] John: See notes on Matthew 4:21. This John moves into one of the three third positions among the apostles. He is not mentioned after Acts 11:29 save in Galatians 2:9 where he is identified as a “pillar.” He outlived all the apostles and is thought to have lived into the second century. He is reckoned the author of the Gospel of John, three epistles, and the Book of Revelation.

[8] Philip: The name means “Horse-lover” and occurs 35 times in the Christian Bible as the name of several men. The apostle Philip occurs only in the apostolic lists with John giving some details of his calling (John 1:40, 41, 43-49).

[9] Bartholomew: The name means “Son of Tolmai” and occurs 4 times, only in the apostolic lists. He is generally listed with Philip and most think he is the same as Nathanael (Matthew 10:3; Luke 6:14; John 1:45, 46). Nathanael means “God Has Given” and occurs 7 times only in Matthew and John. In the next centuries the “church fathers” use the names interchangeably for the same apostle. He is the first to call Jesus “King.” He was a man of outstanding character, without deceit or guileless, according to the Nazarene’s own judgment (John 1:43-51).

[10] Thomas: The name means “Twin” and occurs 13 times in the Christian Bible but not after the apostolic list in Acts. He is forever associated with vocal doubts (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; John 11:16). Despite this unjust reputation Thomas was willing to die with Jesus (John 11:16). He becomes an example to others to have faith without seeing (John 20:24-29).

[11] Matthew: See notes on Matthew 9:9-10. He is not mentioned after the ascension to heaven (Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-16).

[12] James the son of Alphaeus: Alphaeus is thought to be the same as Clopas (Matthew 10:2, 3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13) He is called “the Less” possibly because of his age or height (John 19:25; Mark 15:40; Matthew 27:56).

[13] Thaddaeus: The name only occurs here and Mark 3:18. He is elsewhere called “Judas the son of James.” (Luke 6:16; John 14:22; Acts 1:13) There is a humbling lesson in some of these apostolic names that appear nowhere else. They served in blessed ways almost anonymous. There have been many millions of similar Christians whose names remain unknown until that day when the “Lamb’s scroll of life” is published for others to read.

[14] Simon the Cananaean: This designation also occurs at Mark 3:18.

[15] Judas Iscariot: Perhaps the most infamous name in the Bible. Few, if any, mothers since have named their son Judas. The name Judas is drawn from Judah (“Praise”) or Jew. The full name occurs 7 times in the Gospels. “Iscariot” is thought by some to mean he was from a town called Kerioth-hezron in Judah. It is highly possible that Judas was the only apostle who was not a Galilean. It is likely that initially Judas was a good choice as an apostle for we find him in charge of the contributions (John 12:6; Matthew 10:3). Judas betrayal made him a “devil” or “slanderer” (John 6:66-71). The Hebrew prophets foretold one who would betray Jesus (Psalm 41:9; 109:8; John 13:18, 19).

[16] The one who turned Jesus over: Or, KJV: betrayed; PME: turned traitor.

The Procession of the Apostles – By (James) Jacques-Joseph Tissot, French, 1836-1902. After a painting now in the Brooklyn Museum, New York; photogravure from “La Vie de Notre Seigneur Jésus Christ . . . . avec des notes et des dessins explicatifs par J. James Tissot” 1896-97.

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Preceding

Matthew 9:35-38 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: A Preaching Tour in a Great Harvest

Matthew 9:35-38 – Looking at Jesus our shepherd

+++

finger-point

Related

  1. The Apostles
  2. The Prophets, The Apostles And The Saviour
  3. The 12 Apostles
  4. Phillip Medhurst’s Bible in pictures 131 The call of Andrew and Peter
  5. Phillip Medhurst presents 206/392 the James Tissot Jesus c 1896 The Procession of the Apostles
  6. Luke in the Phillip Medhurst Collection 611 Stephen and others are chosen to the diaconate Acts 6:5-6 Marillier
  7. Luke in the Phillip Medhurst Collection 612 The synagogue disputes with Stephen Acts 6:9-10 Marillier
  8. Jesus taking care of two of his apostles, like everyone else …
  9. >Sermon: The Testing Of The Apostles by Origen
  10. A Drowning Fisherman was Saved by a Carpenter
  11. 10 Powerful Lessons We Learn from the Life of the Apostle Peter
  12. The Magical Powers of the Apostle Peter’s Shadow
  13. A word in season – The Apostle John
  14. Daily Mass: St. John – Apostle & Evangelist
  15. Carissimi: Today’s Mass; SS Simon & Jude, Apostles
  16. Carissimi: Today’s Mass; Octave Day of St John the Evangelist, Apostle
  17. St. John the Apostle
  18. Little Faith apostle Thomas and how people often mislabel him as a doubter. But Thomas is not the only apostle who has been given a hard time for his moments of doubt.
  19. Sermon: St. Andrew the Apostle
  20. Who was St Andrew?
  21. Face Problems Like the Apostles
  22. Apostolic authority: executive, advisory or what?
  23. epistle, apostle
  24. Matthew 23:13-39 BHT, Sorrows of Religious Authorities
  25. Beginning Discipleship From the Apostles and Elders
  26. A Fisherman to a Fisher of Men: How to Follow in the First Apostles’ Footsteps

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