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Posts tagged ‘Jesus’ disciples’

Calvin’s view on taking up the cross

24. Then Jesus said to his disciples.

As Christ saw that Peter had a dread of the cross, and that all the rest were affected in the same way, he enters into a general discourse about bearing the cross, and does not limit his address to the twelve apostles, but lays down the same law for all the godly. {1 } We have already met with a statement nearly similar, (#Mt 10:38). {2 } But in that passage the apostles were only reminded of the persecution which awaited them, as soon as they should begin to discharge their office; while a general instruction is here conveyed, and the initiatory lessons, so to speak, inculcated on all who profess to believe the Gospel.

If any man will come after me.

These words are used for the express purpose of refuting the false views of Peter {3 } Presenting himself to every one as an example of self-denial and of patience, he first shows that it was necessary for him to endure what Peter reckoned to be inconsistent with his character, and next invites every member of his body to imitate him. The words must be explained in this manner:

“If any man would be my disciple, let him follow me by denying himself and taking up his cross, or, let him conform himself to my example.”

The meaning is, that none can be reckoned to be the disciples of Christ unless they are true imitators of him, and are willing to pursue the same course.

He lays down a brief rule for our imitation, in order to make us acquainted with the chief points in which he wishes us to resemble him. It consists of two parts, self-denial and a voluntary bearing of the cross. Let him deny himself. This self-denial is very extensive, and implies that we ought to give up our natural inclinations, and part with all the affections of the flesh, and thus give our consent to be reduced to nothing, provided that God lives and reigns in us. We know with what blind love men naturally regard themselves, how much they are devoted to themselves, how highly they estimate themselves. But if we desire to enter into the school of Christ, we must begin with that folly to which Paul (#1Co 3:18) exhorts us, becoming fools, that we may be wise; and next we must control and subdue all our affections.

And let him take up his cross. He lays down this injunction, because, though there are common miseries to which the life of men is indiscriminately subjected, yet as God trains his people in a peculiar manner, in order that they may be conformed to the image of his Son, we need not wonder that this rule is strictly addressed to them. It may be added that, though God lays both on good and bad men the burden of the cross, yet unless they willingly bend their shoulders to it, they are not said to bear the cross; for a wild and refractory horse cannot be said to admit his rider, though he carries him. The patience of the saints, therefore, consists in bearing willingly the cross which has been laid on them. {4 } Luke adds the word daily  —  let him take up his cross Daily  —  which is very emphatic; for Christ’s meaning is, that there will be no end to our warfare till we leave the world. Let it be the uninterrupted exercise of the godly, that when many afflictions have run their course, they may be prepared to endure fresh afflictions.

– John Calvin

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Preceding

Matthew 10:24-31 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Do Not Fear – Preach!

Matthew 10:32-39 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: I Came to Cause Division

Matthew 12:46-50 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The True Family of Messiah

Matthew 16 Asking for signs from heaven

Matthew 16 Calvin’s view

Matthew 16 Spurgeon’s view

Matthew 16:1-4 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Signs of the Times

Matthew 16:5-12 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Watch Out for the Leaven of False Teaching

Matthew 16:13-20 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Building a Hades-Proof Congregation

Matthew 16:21-23 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Think God’s Thoughts

Matthew 16:24-28 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: A Disciple Must Disown Self

Demanding signs or denying yourself

To follow Christ

Every one who would be Jesus his follower must sacrifice himself

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Additional reading

  1. Looking for True Spirituality 1 Intro
  2. To find ways of Godly understanding
  3. A great man does not lose his self-possession when he is afflicted
  4. The blessing of a broken leg

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Related

  1. The Unvarnished Truth Matthew 10:34-39
  2. Self Denial, and the Road to Greatness
  3. Growing in fortitude
  4. What Would Jesus Do
  5. Self-Denial — Is it a requirement of following Jesus the Messiah?
  6. Denying ourselves – the key to true and lasting joy!
  7. The Discipline of Self-Denial

Matthew 15:1-20 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Tradition and the Heart

CHAPTER FIFTEEN:
TRADITION AND THE HEART, GIVING CRUMBS TO PUPPIES,
FEEDING 4000

[“The Mouth and the Heart”]
(Key Word: Traditions)

Matthew 15:1-20 – Tradition and the Heart

|| Mark 7:1-23

MT15:1 Now scribes[1] and Pharisees from Jerusalem[2] approached Jesus, saying, “Why do your disciples[3] transgress the traditions of the Ancients?[4] MT15:2 For they do not wash their hands[5] when eating bread.” MT15:3 Jesus responded to them, asking, MT15:4 “For The God said, ‘Honor your father and mother.’[6] [Exodus 20:12] And also, ‘Let the person who says a bad word against[7] father or mother be put to death.’ [Leviticus 20:9] MT15:5 But you teach, ‘Whatever I have to help[8] my father or mother is a Temple-offering consecrated to God’[9] – MT15:6 such a person does not honor[10] father at all. You have invalidated the Word[11] of The God by your own tradition. MT15:7 Hypocrites, Isaiah gave a good prophecy[12] about you when he said, MT15:8 ‘This people honors Me with their lips but their heart is distant. MT15:9 Their worship is worthless[13] because they teach human commandments as doctrine.’” [Isaiah 29:13] MT15:10 Now Jesus called the crowd to gather close, telling them, “Listen carefully and understand:[14] MT15:11 Not what enters the mouth defiles a person,[15] but what pours out of the mouth defiles a person.” MT15:12 Now the disciples approached Jesus, telling him, “Do you know you offended the Pharisees[16] by what they heard you say?” MT15:13 Jesus answered them, “Every plant[17] not planted by my Father will be pulled out by the roots. MT15:14 Leave them alone.[18] They are blind guides.[19] So, if someone blind guides another blind person, they will both fall into a pit.” MT15:15 Peter responded to Jesus, “Make the parable clear to us.” MT15:16 Jesus told them, “Are you still without understanding?[20] MT15:17 Are you unaware that everything entering the mouth passes through the belly[21] and is expelled into a sewer?[22] MT15:18 But the words pouring out of the mouth originate from the heart.[23] Those are the things which defile a person. MT15:19 For it is from the heart these originate:[24] evil dialogue,[25] murders, adulteries,[26] fornications,[27] thieveries,[28] perjuries and slander,[29] abusive speech.[30] MT15:20 These are the things defiling a person. Eating with unwashed hands does not defile a person.”

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[1] Scribes: BECK: Bible scholars.

[2] From Jerusalem: Over 100 miles.

[3] Your disciples: They do not accuse Jesus. Had these Jews witnessed some habit of the disciples not to ceremonial wash their hands before eating? Or, is this a rumor?

[4] Transgress the traditions of the Ancients: Or, GDSP: break the rules handed down by our ancestors; KJV: elders.

[5] Wash their hands: Or, AMP: for they do not practice [ceremonially] washing. Compare 2 Kings 3:11. “The Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they wash their hands up to the elbow.” (Mark 7:2-5) The Babylonian Talmud (Sotah 4b) places eating with unwashed hands equal to intercourse with a prostitute.

[6] Honor your father and mother: From the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:12; 21:17). Paul also quotes the “first commandment with a promise.” (Ephesians 6:2) The English word “honor” is from the Greek TIMA from which the name Timothy comes.

[7] Says a bad word against: Or, KJV: curseth; ASV: speaketh evil of; NWT: reviles. Jesus quotes Leviticus 20:9. Compare Leviticus 20:9; Deuteronomy 27:16.

[8] Whatever I have to help: ASV: that wherewith thou mightest have been profited by me; RIEU: all the support you might have; RSV: what you would have gained from me; GDSP: anything of mine that might have been of use to you.

[9] Is a Temple-offering consecrated to God: ASV: is given to God; RIEU: temple-offering. The New Jerusalem Bible footnote explains: “Property thus made over by vow assumes a sacred character.… Such a vow in fact was only a legal fiction.… Though the rabbis acknowledged its impiety they sustained its validity.”

[10] Does not honor: Jesus infers this “honor” is of a material kind not a mere matter of respect. The children who do not care for elderly parents dishonor them and violate the commandment. Compare 1 Timothy 5:4, 8. The Greek word TIME means honor, esteem, value, or preciousness. The verb TIMAO also means “set a price on” (Matthew 27:9); the noun TIME caries the sense of price or value (Matthew 27:6; Acts 4:34); and the adjective TIMIOS means esteemed, dear, or valuable (Acts 5:34; 20:24; 1 Corinthians 3:12).

[11] You have invalidated the Word: Or, MOF: you have repealed the law of God; GDSP: you have nullified what God has said; PME: empties the commandment.

[12] Isaiah gave a good prophecy: The quote is of Isaiah 29:13. The context in Isaiah is also referenced by Romans 11:9; Colossians 2:22; 1 Corinthians 1:19. Or, KJV: well did Esaias prophesy; MOF: it was indeed of you that Isaiah prophesied; PME: Isaiah described you beautifully; RIEU: how right Isaiah was.

[13] Their worship is worthless: Or, WMS: their worship of me is an empty show.

[14] Listen carefully and understand: Or, KNX: listen to this, and grasp what it means.

[15] Defiles a person: Or, PME: makes him common or unclean.

[16] You offended the Pharisees: Or, ME: are deeply offended; GDSP: were shocked to hear you. The disciples seem concerned by Jesus did not come to please everyone. The Greek word here is ESCANDALISTHESAN: they thought what he said scandalous.

[17] Every plant: He infers the scribes and Pharisees.

[18] Leave them alone: Or, KNX: let them say what they will.

[19] Blind guides: Or, KJV: blind leaders. Knowing what he has already said was offensive, the Nazarene comes back with an even more direct inference.

[20] Are you still without understanding: Or, RHM: without discernment; GDSP: have even you no understanding; BAS: are you, like them, still without wisdom; RIEU: You too? Still so dull? Jesus is not caring one twit whose toes he steps on: either the clergy or his own disciples. Raised to respect the clergy, it is possible the disciples do not yet discern the gulf which exists between Jesus and the religious hierarchy.

[21] Passes through the belly: Or, WEY: stomach; NWT: intestines.

[22] Expelled into a sewer: WEY: afterwards ejected from the body; NWT: discharged into the sewer.

[23] Originate from the heart: NEB: has its origins in the heart; PME: comes from his heart and mind. Compare James 1:14, 15.

[24] These originate: Mark 7:20, 21 adds several characteristics: “injurious reasonings issue forth: fornications, thieveries, murders, adulteries, covetings, acts of wickedness, deceit, loose conduct, an envious eye, blasphemy, haughtiness, unreasonableness.” (NWT)

[25] Evil dialogue: The Greek is DIALOGISMOI PONEROI. Or, KJV: evil thoughts; KNX: wicked designs.

[26] Adulteries: Or, BAS: broken faith between the married.

[27] Fornications: The Greek is PORNEIAI and is drawn from “prostitution.” Or, MOF: sexual vice; GDSP: immorality; BAS: unclean desires of the flesh.

[28] Thieveries: MOF: stealing.

[29] Perjuries and slander: Or, KJV: false witness; NWT: false testimonies.

[30] Abusive speech: The Greek is BLASPHEMIAI. Or, KJV: blasphemies; ASV: railings; RHM: profane speaking; WEY: slander.

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Preceding

Matthew 14:35-36 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: If They Might Just Touch Him

Matthew 15 An argument with the Scribes – Teachers and traditions

Matthew 15 Calvin’s view

Matthew 15 Spurgeon’s view

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Related

  1. Matthew 15, defilement from within, the faith of the Caananite woman, Jesus feeds the four thousand.
  2. When What to Eat is More Important Than What to Say
  3. Matthew 15丨C. H. Spurgeon
  4. “Why do your disciples play fast and loose with the rules?” ~Religious scholars to Jesus
  5. unclean
  6. Out of The Mouth
  7. “Frauds!” ~Jesus
  8. Doctrine vs. Tradition
  9. Hypocrisy — Its Expression through Insincere Motives
  10. Hypocrisy — What happens when my deeds do not match my words?
  11. False Doctrine — Is it of human origin and not from Jesus the Messiah?

Matthew 12:1-8 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Something Greater than the Temple

CHAPTER TWELVE:
PROBLEMS IN THE MINISTRY:
OPPONENTS, SIGNS, FAMILY

[“Opposition Inside and Out”]

Matthew 12:1-8 – Something Greater than the Temple

|| Mark 2:23-28; Luke 6:1-5

MT12:1 During that period Jesus was moving through the grain fields on the Sabbath.[1] Now his disciples were hungry[2] and began to pluck heads of grain and eat them. MT12:2 But, the Pharisees observed this and said to Jesus, “Look! Your disciples are doing what is not permitted during the Sabbath!”[3] MT12:3 Then Jesus said to them, “Did you not read[4] what David, and those with him, did when he got hungry? MT12:4 How he entered into the House of the God[5] and they ate the loaves of presentation[6] – which he was not authorized to eat, nor those with him, but only the priests? MT12:5 Or, did you not read in the Law regarding Sabbaths that the temple priests profane the Sabbath[7] and remain innocent?[8] MT12:6 But, I tell you: you have something greater than the temple here.[9] MT12:7 You would not have condemned the innocent[10] if you had known what this means,[11] ‘I desire mercy[12] and not sacrifice.’ [Hosea 6:6, 7] MT12:8 For the Son of Humankind is Master of the Sabbath.”[13]

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[1] Sabbath: Literally “sabbaths.” The subject of the Sabbath was a serious conflict with the Jewish clergy. The word occurs 46 times in the Gospels (Matthew, 11; Mark, 11; Luke, 13; John, 11). Two thousand years later it is still an issue even among Christians.

[2] Hungry: Imagine hunger only satisfied by hard grains of wheat or kernels of corn?

[3] Not permitted during the Sabbath: The Law permitted plucking grain (Deuteronomy 23:25). The Jewish version of Sabbath law during the Nazarene’s life was very detailed. There were 39 rules which identified work on the Sabbath, including “reaping.” Later, Maimonides ruled: “To pluck ears is a kind of reaping.”

[4] Did you not read: Compare 1 Samuel 21:1-6.

[5] The House of the God: There are several terms for the Tabernacle of Moses: House, Sanctuary, and Temple. On the later there are two Greek words used: HIERON which generally means the Temple complex; and, NAOS which refers to the shrine or tabernacle proper with its two sacred rooms, the Holy and the Most Holy.

[6] They ate the loaves of presentation: No normal bread was available and the high priest offered the twelve ringed loaves on the table of showbread in the Tabernacle. His only requirement is that only those men who had “kept themselves from women.” David assured the priest they “certainly clean today.” (1 Samuel 21:1-6 NJB) For this kindness 85 priests were slaughtered.

[7] Temple priests profane the Sabbath: That is, the priests perform working functions involved in worship forbidden regular Israelites. The word “profane” is also rendered: KNX: violate; MOF: desecrate; PME: break.

[8] Innocent: Or, KJV: blameless; MOF: not guilty.

[9] Something greater than the temple here: Jesus alludes to himself as the future High Priest as well as his disciples as ‘temple foundation stones.’ (John 2:19; Hebrews 8:1; Ephesians 2:19-22; 1 Peter 2:5) Compare Luke 11:31, 32 for similar language.

[10] The innocent: Surely he means himself and perhaps – like David’s “mighty men” – his own disciples.

[11] This means: The Nazarene quotes Hosea 6:7 from the LXX (where it is 6:6).

[12] Mercy: The Greek is ELEOS and is usually translated mercy, compassion, pity. The problem with the English “mercy” is that it has under gone an evolution so that today it carries the idea of justice: condemnation or judgment withheld. The root of “mercy” is a word from the marketplace (mercado) and is related to that payment to mercenaries. Merci means “thanks.” Kind charity is closer to the idea. So, the verse intends to mean: “I wish charity over (religious) sacrifices.” The quote of Hosea 6:7 is from the Jewish Greek Septuagint (LXX). The Hebrew text reads checed and is rooted in kindness. If one made all the religious sacrifices his worship demanded and failed to be kind or charitable, God’s will is missed.

[13] Master of the Sabbath: There are various opinions. One meaning may be: as Master of the sabbath day, Jesus as Son of Man will determine what is good or bad on the sabbath; or, he will use the sabbath as he determines. Some read the phrase “son of man” to mean “human” so that human needs will determine what is good or bad on the sabbath. Some hold a futurist view: the Messiah is King of that future great Sabbath under his rule – the Thousand Years.

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Preceding

Matthew 11:25-30 Encouragement for John and Reproach for cities 6 Taking Jesus’ Yoke and Becoming Disciples

Seven full weeks or seven completed Sabbaths and ascension of Jesus

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Additional reading

  1. Was Jesus Religious
  2. A new exodus and offering of a Lamb
  3. Do we need to keep the Sabbath
  4. Were allowed to willfully break the Law of Moses
  5. Holy Sabbath
  6. Communion and day of worship
  7. Yom Hey, Eve of Passover and liberation of many people
  8. Shabbat Pesach service reading 1/2
  9. Lord and owner
  10. Why we do not keep to a Sabbath or a Sunday or Lord’s Day #1 Before rain of food from heaven
  11. Why we do not keep to a Sabbath or a Sunday or Lord’s Day #2 Testimony
  12. Why we do not keep to a Sabbath or a Sunday or Lord’s Day #3 Days to be kept holy or set apart
  13. Why we do not keep to a Sabbath or a Sunday or Lord’s Day #4 Jesus and the Sabbath day
  14. Why we do not keep to a Sabbath or a Sunday or Lord’s Day #5 Not law binding
  15. Why we do not keep to a Sabbath or a Sunday or Lord’s Day #6 Sunday or the Lord’s day
  16. Why we do not have our worship-services in a church building
  17. Self inflicted misery #5 A prophet without a hedge around him

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Related

  1. Shabbat Emor: Against the Cruelty
  2. Confronting Systemic Problems – Parshat Va’era 2018
  3. Efficient Rest – Deuteronomy 5:12-14
  4. The Sabbath
  5. Sabbath
  6. Sabbath-Rest
  7. The Sabbath & Sundays?
  8. Read Through the Bible – Day #58 – Luke Chapter 14
  9. Inconsistencies With Lawlessness
  10. Day 95 – The Sabbath is for us
  11. Sacking off the commands of God for what?
  12. Read Through the Bible – Day #50 – Luke Chapter 6

Matthew 11:25-30 Encouragement for John and Reproach for cities 6 Taking Jesus’ Yoke and Becoming Disciples

11:25-30 – Take My Yoke and Become Disciples

|| Luke 10:21, 22

MT11:25 During that period Jesus gave a response: “I openly confess to You, Father, Lord of heaven and earth,[1] because You hide[2] things from sophists[3] and intellectuals[4] and reveal them to babies. MT11:26 Yes, Father, because to do it this way is by your good will.[5] MT11:27 Everything has been given me[6] by my Father. No one perfectly knows[7] the Son but the Father. Nor does anyone know the Father perfectly but the Son; and whom ever the Son wishes to unveil [Him].[8] MT11:28 Come to me all those burdened by toil[9] and I will refresh you.[10] MT11:29 Pick up my yoke[11] and learn from me,[12] because I am meek and humble in heart,[13] and you will find refreshment for your souls. MT11:30 For my yoke is kind[14] and my load is light.”[15]

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Matthew 11:30: For my yoke is kind and my load is light.

[1] Lord of heaven and earth: The Father is “Lord of heaven and earth,” and thus the Lord of Jesus. Compare Psalm 110:1 KJV. The designation is only used of the Father of the Son (Luke 10:21; Acts 17:24).

[2] Hide: The Greek is EKRYPSAS.

[3] Sophists: The Greek is SOPHON and may be rendered KJV: wise; WEY: sages. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:27.

[4] Intellectuals: The Greek is SYNETON and may be rendered: IB: cunning; KJV: prudent; STR: understand, discerning (1 Corinthians 1:19 = BER: keenness of the sagacious; TAY: the most brilliant).

[5] To do it this way is by your good will: Or, KJV: so it seemed good in thy sight; WEY: for such has been Thy gracious will; BECK: for wanting it to be that way.

[6] Everything has been given me: This is explained in John 5:19-47. God could not have everything given to Him for He already possesses everything.

[7] Perfectly knows: The Greek is a heightened form of knowing, EPI-GINOSKEI – not just an intellectual understanding but a perfect relationship. Note the “holy spirit” is absent from this formula. Others render the word: RHM: fully knoweth. Compare John 1:18.

[8] And whom ever the Son wishes to unveil [Him]: The Holy Spirit is absent here. Why does the Son not include the Holy Spirit in the formula? Does the Son reveal the Father to the Holy Ghost? The word “unveil” is from the Greek APEKALYPSAS and related to the word for the Book of Revelation. Others render this: KJV: reveal; AMP: make Him known; KIT: uncovered.

[9] Burdened by toil: Or, KJV: labour and are heavy laden; WEY: toiling and burdened; PME: weary and over-burdened; NEB: those who work hard, whose load is heavy (Isaiah 55:2).

[10] I will refresh you: Or, KJV: give you rest; WMS: lead you into rest. A person who comes to the Nazarene is not further burdened but feels a sense of relief and liberation.

[11] Pick up my yoke: Some effort is required. Others render this: NEB: bend your necks to my yoke. Compare Galatians 5:1.

[12] Learn from me: Two things are required: a yoke and an effort to learn. This course of discipleship is not without a yoke, nor without effort to learn the teachings of the Master. BAS: let me be your teacher.

[13] I am meek and humble in heart: Or, TCNT: gentle and lowly-minded. Despite his credentials and authority as stated in verse 27 the Messiah is not arrogant or puffed up with self-importance. One feels the simple, poor, and lowly felt free to approach Jesus freely with their pain and problems. Though Moses is described as “the meekest of men” Jesus is clearly the meekest of all who have ever lived (Numbers 12:3).

[14] My yoke is kind: Or, KJV: easy. Though the disciple is under a yoke – indicating this is not a freedom from work – this yoke fits well and is shared with the strongest shoulders known among men. The law forbade the yoking of two animals of different strengths and yet here we have exactly that. NOR: my yoke fits so easily.

[15] Load is light: There is a load though it is described as light. Others render this: KJV: my burden light.

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Preceding

Matthew 11:1 Encouragement for John and Reproach for cities 1 Twelve Sent out to Teach

Matthew 11:2-6 Encouragement for John and Reproach for cities 2 Imprisoned Baptist Encouraged

Matthew 11:7-15 Encouragement for John and Reproach for cities 3 John the Baptist and the Kingdom Goal

Matthew 11:16-19 Encouragement for John and Reproach for cities 4 Impossibility of Pleasing Everyone

Matthew 11:20-24 Encouragement for John and Reproach for cities 5 Reproached Cities a Lesson for Judgment Day

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Related

  1. #7 Jesus
  2. February 4 @ Matthew 11-13
  3. 14th February 2018 Matthew 11:29
  4. Invitation to rest (Matthew 11:25-29)
  5. I Will Give You Rest
  6. “I give you praise, Father, Lord of heaven and earth”
  7. Scripture Sunday, January 21, 2018 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me
  8. Easy yoke and light burden
  9. The Right Load
  10. “Yea!!!-The Yoke Is Coming Off!!!”
  11. Rest In Your Labor For The Lord
  12. Find God’s Rest
  13. The Business of Busy-ness

Matthew 10:1-4 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Twelve Given Authority

CHAPTER TEN:
HARVEST WORKERS GIVEN INSTRUCTIONS
AND SENT OUT

Matthew 10:1-4 – The Twelve Given Authority

|| Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:13-16; Acts 1:13

The call of Andrew and Peter – Harold Copping (1863-1932) from “Scenes in the Life of our Lord” published by Religious Tract Society 1907. Location of original painting unknown.

MT10:1 Now Jesus invited his twelve disciples[1] to approach him. He gave them authority over unclean spirits to exorcise them and to cure every disease and malady. MT10:2 The names of the twelve apostles[2] are these: first, Simon[3] the one called Peter[4] and his brother Andrew;[5] and, James[6] the son of Zebedee and his brother John;[7] MT10:3 and Philip,[8] Bartholomew,[9] Thomas.[10] Matthew[11] the tax-collector, James the son of Alphaeus,[12] Thaddaeus,[13] MT10:4 Simon the Cananaean,[14] and Judas Iscariot[15] (the one who turned Jesus over[16]).

[1] Twelve disciples: The number “twelve” in this context occurs 34 times in the Christian Bible (Matthew 10:1, 2, 5, 11; 19:28; 20:17; 26:14, 20, 47; Mark 3:14, 16; 4:10; 6:7; 9:35; 10:32; 11:11; 14:10; 14:17, 20, 43; Luke 6:13; 8:1; 9:1, 12; 18:31; 22:3, 47; John 6:67, 70, 71; 20:24; Acts 6:2; 1 Corinthians 15:5; Revelation 21:14). 1 Corinthians 15:5 shows the “twelve” became an official group whether all twelve were present or not.

[2] The names of the twelve apostles: Compare the other apostolic lists and note not all remain in their same places. Other than these parallel lists some apostles are never mentioned elsewhere. Tradition and church history has certain unknown apostles leaving to far lands to evangelize while others died as martyrs. On their history see The History of the Christian Church by Eusebius; or, Foxe’s Book of Martyrs.

[3] Simon: The name means “Hear” and occurs 80 times in the Bible. Several are so named. There is another apostle named Simon. The father of Judas was named Simon. One of Jesus’ half-brothers was named Simon. The man who carried the cross (beam) for Jesus was also a Simon.

[4] Peter: See notes on Matthew 4:18. Peter is always first in the list and it is possible the Fisherman is the diamond (jasper stone) in the foundation of New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:19).

[5] Andrew: See notes on Matthew 4:18. This apostle moves to a lower number in the list of twelve.

[6] James: See notes on Matthew 4:21. This “James” is often mentioned as one of three among Peter and John (Matthew 17:1, 2; Luke 8:51; Mark 14:32-34; Mark 13:3, 4). James the apostle is always mentioned with John and often first (Matthew 4:21; 10:2; 17:1; Mark 1:19, 29; 3:17; 5:37; 9:2; 10:35, 41; 13:3; 14:33; Luke 5:10; 6:14; 8:51; 9:28, 54; Acts 1:13). James was also the name of one of Jesus’ brothers. It is this later James to whom Jesus appeared after his resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:8) and who wrote the epistle after his name.

[7] John: See notes on Matthew 4:21. This John moves into one of the three third positions among the apostles. He is not mentioned after Acts 11:29 save in Galatians 2:9 where he is identified as a “pillar.” He outlived all the apostles and is thought to have lived into the second century. He is reckoned the author of the Gospel of John, three epistles, and the Book of Revelation.

[8] Philip: The name means “Horse-lover” and occurs 35 times in the Christian Bible as the name of several men. The apostle Philip occurs only in the apostolic lists with John giving some details of his calling (John 1:40, 41, 43-49).

[9] Bartholomew: The name means “Son of Tolmai” and occurs 4 times, only in the apostolic lists. He is generally listed with Philip and most think he is the same as Nathanael (Matthew 10:3; Luke 6:14; John 1:45, 46). Nathanael means “God Has Given” and occurs 7 times only in Matthew and John. In the next centuries the “church fathers” use the names interchangeably for the same apostle. He is the first to call Jesus “King.” He was a man of outstanding character, without deceit or guileless, according to the Nazarene’s own judgment (John 1:43-51).

[10] Thomas: The name means “Twin” and occurs 13 times in the Christian Bible but not after the apostolic list in Acts. He is forever associated with vocal doubts (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; John 11:16). Despite this unjust reputation Thomas was willing to die with Jesus (John 11:16). He becomes an example to others to have faith without seeing (John 20:24-29).

[11] Matthew: See notes on Matthew 9:9-10. He is not mentioned after the ascension to heaven (Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-16).

[12] James the son of Alphaeus: Alphaeus is thought to be the same as Clopas (Matthew 10:2, 3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13) He is called “the Less” possibly because of his age or height (John 19:25; Mark 15:40; Matthew 27:56).

[13] Thaddaeus: The name only occurs here and Mark 3:18. He is elsewhere called “Judas the son of James.” (Luke 6:16; John 14:22; Acts 1:13) There is a humbling lesson in some of these apostolic names that appear nowhere else. They served in blessed ways almost anonymous. There have been many millions of similar Christians whose names remain unknown until that day when the “Lamb’s scroll of life” is published for others to read.

[14] Simon the Cananaean: This designation also occurs at Mark 3:18.

[15] Judas Iscariot: Perhaps the most infamous name in the Bible. Few, if any, mothers since have named their son Judas. The name Judas is drawn from Judah (“Praise”) or Jew. The full name occurs 7 times in the Gospels. “Iscariot” is thought by some to mean he was from a town called Kerioth-hezron in Judah. It is highly possible that Judas was the only apostle who was not a Galilean. It is likely that initially Judas was a good choice as an apostle for we find him in charge of the contributions (John 12:6; Matthew 10:3). Judas betrayal made him a “devil” or “slanderer” (John 6:66-71). The Hebrew prophets foretold one who would betray Jesus (Psalm 41:9; 109:8; John 13:18, 19).

[16] The one who turned Jesus over: Or, KJV: betrayed; PME: turned traitor.

The Procession of the Apostles – By (James) Jacques-Joseph Tissot, French, 1836-1902. After a painting now in the Brooklyn Museum, New York; photogravure from “La Vie de Notre Seigneur Jésus Christ . . . . avec des notes et des dessins explicatifs par J. James Tissot” 1896-97.

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Preceding

Matthew 9:35-38 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: A Preaching Tour in a Great Harvest

Matthew 9:35-38 – Looking at Jesus our shepherd

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finger-point

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  5. Phillip Medhurst presents 206/392 the James Tissot Jesus c 1896 The Procession of the Apostles
  6. Luke in the Phillip Medhurst Collection 611 Stephen and others are chosen to the diaconate Acts 6:5-6 Marillier
  7. Luke in the Phillip Medhurst Collection 612 The synagogue disputes with Stephen Acts 6:9-10 Marillier
  8. Jesus taking care of two of his apostles, like everyone else …
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  11. 10 Powerful Lessons We Learn from the Life of the Apostle Peter
  12. The Magical Powers of the Apostle Peter’s Shadow
  13. A word in season – The Apostle John
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  18. Little Faith apostle Thomas and how people often mislabel him as a doubter. But Thomas is not the only apostle who has been given a hard time for his moments of doubt.
  19. Sermon: St. Andrew the Apostle
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  21. Face Problems Like the Apostles
  22. Apostolic authority: executive, advisory or what?
  23. epistle, apostle
  24. Matthew 23:13-39 BHT, Sorrows of Religious Authorities
  25. Beginning Discipleship From the Apostles and Elders
  26. A Fisherman to a Fisher of Men: How to Follow in the First Apostles’ Footsteps

Matthew 8:18-22 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Two Would-be Followers

Matthew 8:18-22 – Two Would-be Followers

|| Luke 9:57-60

MT8:18 But when Jesus observed the crowd surrounding him he commanded [his disciples] to leave for the other side of [Lake Galilee]. MT8:19 And a scribe[1] approached Jesus, and said: “I will follow you anywhere you go.” MT8:20 Jesus told him, “Foxes[2] have dens and birds of the sky roasts,[3] but the Son of Humankind[4] has nowhere[5] to lay his head.” MT8:21 Then a different one of the disciples[6] said to Jesus, “Sir, permit me first to go and bury my father.”[7] MT8:22 But, Jesus told him, “Be following me[8] and let the dead bury their own dead.”[9]

[1] Scribe: The Greek is GRAMMATEUS, a grammarian, writer or copyist. The word occurs about 75 times in the Bible, beginning with Judges 5:14 (Compare 1 Chronicles 2:55; Ezra 4:8, 9, 17, 23). The group occur in Matthew, 22; Mark, 21; Luke, 14; John, 1; Acts, 3; 1 Corinthians, 1. The scribe may be learning or educated. The Hebrew sopherim were very dedicated to the precise hand-copying of the Scriptures. They counted not only the words but also the letters of the entire Hebrew Bible. They were associated with teachers of the Law and particularly the sect of the Pharisees. They could be called “Rabbi.” We would suspect their fingers blackened from much use of pen and ink. The older scribes much hunched over from labors and the penmanship table.

[2] Foxes: The animal lives in burrows underground which may be substantial. They are mentioned nine times in the Bible.

[3] Roasts: Note not “nests” but temporary places to spend the night.

[4] Son of Humankind: The Greek is HUIOS TOU ANTHROPOU and is most often rendered “Son of man.” There are several words for “man” and so we prefer to widen this word to mean “human” which may or may not include women as in “humankind” according to the context. The phrase is taken directly from Daniel 7:13 which was understood by the Jewish teachers to refer to the Messiah or even the Son of God (Compare Philo Judaea). The designation occurs about 180 times and is applied to Daniel and Ezekiel, most often in the Hebrew Bible to the latter prophet. The title occurs in Matthew, 31; Mark, 14; Luke, 25; John, 13; Acts, 1 and rarely elsewhere.

[5] Nowhere: Jesus has no permanent residence but is like Paul, “homeless.” (1 Corinthians 4:11) It is interesting to note when we see Jesus next sleeping: in the fishing boat during the storm. He is often seen spending the night outdoors even up to his final week. Such a person today would be considered a homeless street-person and shunned by genteel Christians.

[6] A different one of the disciples: Possibly one other than the twelve. It is interesting to note that this “disciples” wishes to “follow” Jesus. One might assume that is what being a disciple meant. It is possible the account means by this that the disciple wanted to become part of Jesus personal entourage which followed him everywhere.

[7] Bury my father: Many understand this to mean the disciple wished to return to his living father and wait until his death and burial and thereafter begin his following Jesus.

[8] Following me: Jesus does not include him among his closest disciples but encourages the man to continue to follow on this course.

[9] Dead bury their own dead: Those who are spiritually dead as children of Adam and have not taken up Nazarene discipleship. There were others who could bear this burden leaving the man free to follow if he so chose. Discipleship, particularly apostleship, were serious matters worthy of total commitment by a man. It is possibly the reason women were not invited to make this sacrifice, given their obligations as mothers.

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Preceding

Nazarene Commentary Matthew 4:23-25 – Kingdom Preaching and Healing Draws Crowds

Matthew 8:1-4 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Jesus a Miracle-working Son of God

Matthew 8:5-13 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Servant of Army Officer Healed

Matthew 8:14-17 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Jesus Heals Peter’s Mother-in-law

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Additional reading

  1. A call easy to understand
  2. Discipleship to look at
  3. Discipleship way of life on the narrow way to everlasting life
  4. Breathing and growing with no heir
  5. Fellowship
  6. Salvation, trust and action in Jesus #3 as a Christian

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Further related

  1. Matthew 8:18-22
  2. Following Jesus…
  3. Discipleship
  4. the cost of discipleship
  5. The Cost of (Non) Discipleship
  6. The cost of discipleship, peace, and division

Nazarene Commentary Matthew 5:17-20 – The Nazarene Rabbi’s Commentary on the Torah

Matthew 5:17-20 – The Nazarene Rabbi’s Commentary on the Torah

MT5:17 “Do not think I came to destroy[1] the Torah[2] or the Prophets. I came not to destroy but to fulfill.[3] MT5:18 For I tell you this truth: Sooner would heaven and earth pass away before one iota or a single dot[4] passes from the Torah and not all of it be fulfilled. MT5:19 So, anyone who breaks the ‘least’ commandment[5] and so teaches men will be called ‘Least’ in the Heavenly Realm. But, anyone who obeys and teaches them[6] will be called Great in the Heavenly Realm. MT5:20 For I am telling you: If your ‘righteousness’[7] does not surpass the Scribes and Pharisees[8] you will not enter the Heavenly Realm

*

[1] I came to destroy: Probably a charge waiting to be made by the Nazarene’s opposers, the religious hierarchy which prided itself on the preservation of Moses’ Law.

The phrase “I came” is the only intimation that the Nazarene was sent by God. Jesus confesses in John chs 5-8 that he speaks nothing of his own originality but rather those things taught to him by his Father. Here Christ comes from the Celestial Realm. He has the brilliance and vocabulary to say anything he wants. The Mountain Teachings are the first public sermon of the Nazarene.

[2] Torah: Or, the “law” referring mainly to that of Moses but including non-Biblical views expressed by the Ancients. Here begins possibly what the crowd and the Nazarene’s disciples wanted to know: where did Jesus stand on the subject of the Law? Virtually the rest of the sermon is a commentary on the law or Torah with a famous summation of it in Matthew 7:12.

[3] Fulfill: Various renderings: GDSP: enforce; KNX: bring them to perfection. First, the Nazarene as Christ ‘comes’ to set an example of how to follow the Law perfectly. Next, he fulfills all those elements of the Law which are “shadows” of realities (Hebrews 10:1). Paul writes, ‘Christ is the end of the Law.’ By Christ, the Nazarene Saint is ‘released from the Law.’ (Romans 7:1-5) Paul echoes the Nazarene later when he writes, ‘For all the Law is fulfilled in one statement: “You Shall Love Your Neighbor As Yourself.”’ (Galatians 5:14) Jesus words may be illustrated by a normal human contract with another: there is a difference between arbitrarily and unilaterally ‘destroying’ or breaking the contract and fulfilling your end of the agreement (Galatians 3:14).

The words “I came” are the only hint in the sermon which indicate his overall mission from God (John 4:25).

[4] Dot: The Greek word is IOTA. These words are best understood if one watches a skilled Jewish copyist painstakingly copying every ‘dot and tittle’ of the Hebrew manuscript. Such efforts (Romans 3:1) will not go unfulfilled until everything purposed by God in the Law and Prophets is realized.

[5] ‘Least’ commandment: The commandments have degrees. Here is described a person who not only violates one of these ‘least’ commands but also teaches others to do so. Such is verging on apostasy from the Law of Moses for which Paul was accused (Acts 21:21). As far as individuals are concerned there are degrees of “great” and “least” in the “kingdom.” This is something the disciples were aware of, for two of them got their mother to approach Jesus asking him to see to it that they sat at his right and left in the Kingdom. Note Matthew 11:11 where the ‘least’ in the Kingdom is still greater than John the Baptist. Can the Nazarene mean that a person who breaks even a small law and teaches others to do so will be in the “kingdom” of the heaven, that is, the Father’s Kingdom? Or, does he mean, in the Realm of Profession, the Kingdom/Church? (Matthew 13:41)

[6] Teaches them: It would appear that “teaching” is a prerequisite for being among the ‘great’ in the Realm of Profession (Hebrews 5:12).

[7] Righteousness: Is this a tongue in cheek sentence? This subject of “righteousness” is key to both Paul and John. Paul warns of self-righteousness or that righteousness of the Law; and, John writes of the true righteousness. “Righteousness” means the state of being “right” or correct in attitude, speech and action.

Deutsch: Christus im Hause des Pharisäers, Jac...

Jesus Christ in the house of the pharisees – Jacopo Tintoretto, Escorial (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

[8] Pharisees: Much the butt of Jesus’ censure and condemnation. Jesus never condemns righteousness itself, but that hypocritical self-righteousness which characterizes religious hierarchies of any kind.

 

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Preceding

Nazarene Commentary Matthew 5:1-12 Nazarene Mountain teachings: Blessed and legal commentaries

Nazarene Commentary Matthew 5:13-16 Salt and Light shining bright

Next: Nazarene Commentary Matthew 5:21-26 – 1. The Nazarene’s Commentary on Exodus 20:13

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  19. “You’re more than happy when you’re content with just who you are—no more, no less.” ~Jesus
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