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Matthew 22:29-33 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Resurrection Proof from Moses

Matthew 22:29-33 – Resurrection Proof from Moses

|| Mark 12:24-27; Luke 20:34-40

MT22:29 Now Jesus answered them: “Not knowing the Scriptures[1] or the dynamism[2] of The God, you are mistaken. MT22:30 For in the resurrection men do not marry[3] nor are women given in marriage[4] but they are like the angels in heaven.[5] MT22:31But concerning the subject of the resurrection of the dead did you never read what The God said to you: MT22:32 ‘I am The God of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob’?[6] [Exodus 3:16] He is not The God of the dead but of those alive.”[7] MT22:33 Upon hearing this the crowds were astounded at his teaching.

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[1] Not knowing the Scriptures: A powerful thing to say to Jewish scholars. It is proof what the others had said earlier in verse 16.

[2] Dynamism: The Greek is DYNAMIN as is generally translated “power.”

[3] Men do not marry: “Men” are inferred by the phrase and context.

[4] Women given in marriage: “Women” are inferred by the phrase and context.

[5] They are like the angels in heaven: That is celibate spirits. Compare Galatians 3:28.

[6] I am The God of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob: The quote is from Exodus 3:6 (Compare Exodus 6:3). There are far better verses Jesus could quote to prove the resurrection in the Scriptures. However, the Sadducees only accepted the first five books of Moses. So this is an adept rabbinical move on the part of the Nazarene to find the resurrection in such a vague phrase.

[7] But of those alive: Or, Luke 20:38 adds, “… for they are all living to him.” The dead are unconscious in sleep and reside within the memory of God (Job 14:12-14). From this standpoint dead Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob sleep within the Mind of God.

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Preceding

Matthew 22:1-6 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Parable of Invitation to a Marriage

Matthew 22:7-10 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Invitations after City’s Destruction

Matthew 22:11-13 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: King’s Inspection and Marriage Garments

Matthew 22:14 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Many Invited – Few Chosen

Matthew 22:15-22 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Caesar’s Things and God’s Things

Matthew 22:23-28 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Sadducees Question on the Resurrection

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Additional reading

  1. Death

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Related articles

  1. Matthew 22 Verse by Verse
  2. Restoration, Resurrection, and Reconciliation
  3. Resurrection of the Dead, Part I
  4. Resurrection of the Dead, Part II
  5. Resurrection of the Dead, Part III
  6. The Investigative Judgment
  7. Katelyn’s Question #5
  8. Where is king David? [935d]
  9. Resurrection and Afterlife in the Old Testament
  10. The Hope of the Resurrection

Matthew 22:23-28 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Sadducees Question on the Resurrection

Matthew 22:23-28 – Sadducees Question on the Resurrection

|| Mark 12:18-23; Luke 20:27-33

MT22:23 On that same day the Sadducees[1] approached Jesus. Not believing in the resurrection,[2] they asked Jesus, MT22:24 “Teacher, Moses said[3] that if a man should die without children his brother should take in marriage his woman and raise up his brother’s seed.[4] [Deuteronomy 25:5] MT22:25 Now we had seven brothers and the first one died without children and so his woman[5] was released to his brother. MT22:26 This happened also with the second, the third, and finally all seven brothers. MT22:27 In the end the woman died. MT22:28 Therefore, in the resurrection to which of the seven will the woman belong? For all seven had her.”

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[1] Sadducees: See the notes on Matthew 3:7.

[2] Resurrection: The Greek is ANASTASEI means again + stand. A synonym for it is raised up. Research the word resurrection. For a thorough considering see Where are the Dead?

[3] Moses said: The Sadducees only accepted the five books of Moses as inspired of God. They allude to Deuteronomy 25:5. Compare also Ruth 1:11; 3:13. This is called “brother-in-law marriage” and though it may seem quaint to a modern western world the need to preserve the family, tribe, and nation were obsessive to the Israelites. Jesus himself is the product of such a relationship (see the book of Ruth).

[4] Seed: The Greek is SPERMA.

[5] His woman: Or, “wife.” See notes elsewhere under wife.

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Preceding

Matthew 22:1-6 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Parable of Invitation to a Marriage

Matthew 22:7-10 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Invitations after City’s Destruction

Matthew 22:11-13 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: King’s Inspection and Marriage Garments

Matthew 22:14 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Many Invited – Few Chosen

Matthew 22:15-22 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Caesar’s Things and God’s Things

Matthew 19:10-12 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Celibacy

Matthew 19:10-12 – Celibacy

MT19:10 Now the disciples of Jesus asked him, “If this is the case with a husband and his wife – it should be recommended not to marry at all!”[1] MT19:11 Jesus told them, “Everyone cannot make room for what you are suggesting,[2] but only those who have the gift.[3] MT19:12 For there are eunuchs[4] born so from their mother’s womb;[5] and there are eunuchs made eunuchs[6] by humans; and, there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs[7] because of the Realm of Heaven.[8] Let the person who is able to make room for it, make room for it.”[9]

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[1] It should be recommended not to marry at all: Or, KJV: it is not good to marry; NEB: it is better to refrain from marriage; ASV: not expedient to marry; KNX: better not to marry at all; WMS: there is no advantage in getting married; PME: not worth getting married; NW: it is not advisable to marry. We smile at the suggestion of these Jewish disciples of Jesus: if a man cannot divorce his wife for any reason it is just better not to get married. Perhaps we see that ingrained “hardness of heart” present in the Israelite men?

[2] For what you are suggesting: Or, KJV: all men cannot receive the saying; RHM: not all find room for the word; KNX: that conclusion cannot be taken in by everybody; RIEU: accept the ruling; BER: not all people understand this saying; WMS: it is not every man who has the capacity to carry out this saying; MOF: this truth is not practicable for everyone. The disciples may have alluded to rabbinical sayings: “Among those whose life is not life is the man ruled by his wife.” “If a man has a bad wife, it is his religious duty to divorce her.”

[3] Those who have the gift: Or, KJV: those to whom it is given; KNX: only by those who have the gift; RIEU: only those that hear the call; WMS: to whom the capacity has been gift; WEY: upon whom the grace has been bestowed. Some persons are born with either the desire for sex or intimate relationships. Some by observation have judged that there is little in marriage to recommend it over a life of celibate liberty. Others have developed the “gift” by rigorous control of themselves.

[4] Eunuchs: The Greek is EUNOUCHOI and refers to a castrated male. The word is formed by “bed” + “have/hold” and is rooted in a castrated male guardian over a harem (Esther 2:3, 12-15; 4:4-6, 9). A eunuch was not allowed under the Law (Deuteronomy 23:1). However, consider Acts 8:26-39 as possibly the fulfillment of Isaiah 56:4, 5.

[5] Born so from their mother’s womb: Or NOR: some men have always been unsuited for marriage, having been born that way; NEB: incapable of marriage; TCNT: disabled for marriage. Though this could mean some physical disability modern science has probably established that some DNA tends to have much less sex-drive.

[6] Eunuchs made eunuchs: It is interesting that here it is eunuchs who make other eunuchs – likely because they were in charge of such castration. One wonders if such men had a choice in these matters?

[7] Have made themselves eunuchs: A literal reading of this has caused men such as Origen to castrate themselves.

[8] Because of the Realm of Heaven: It is the view of most that Jesus here encourages celibacy for those who have the gift and for the right reasons: service related to the Church. Paul recommends celibacy for those who have control (1 Corinthians 7:32, 38). Marriage is not forbidden save by apostates (1 Timothy 4:3). However, Paul clearly encourages Christians not to be driven by sexual impulses: “When their sexual impulses have come between them and the Christ, they want to marry, having a judgment because they have disregarded their first [expression of] faith.” (1 Timothy 5:11, 12 NW) Note how he continues: “I desire the younger widows to marry, to bear children, to manage a household.” (1 Timothy 5:14 NW)

[9] Let the person who is able to make room for it, make room for it: Or, KJV: he that is able to receive it, let him receive it; KNX: take this in, you whose hearts are large enough for it; RIEU let him that can, obey the call; BER: whoever is able to get practical hold of it, let him get hold; MOF: let anyone practice it for whom it is practicable. Note these words are directed to men who are willing to give up marriage and children for their service within the Realm of Heaven.

Those considering marriage do well to think the matter out soberly. In the Western world over half of all marriages fail and half of the “successful” are locked into a life of lovelessness and serious dissatisfaction.

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Preceding

Matthew 19:1-2 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: From Galilee to Judah

Matthew 19:3-9 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Grounds for Divorce

Matthew 19:3-9 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Grounds for Divorce – additional verses

Matthew 19:3-9 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Grounds for Divorce

Matthew 19:3-9 – Grounds for Divorce

|| Mark 10:1-12

MT19:3 And now Pharisees approached Jesus to tempt him,[1] asking, “Is it permissible to divorce[2] a woman for any cause?”[3] MT19:4 Jesus responded to their question by saying, “Did you never read[4] that the One who created male and female[5] [Genesis 1:26, 27] from the Beginning[6] made them MT19:5 and He said:[7] ‘On account of this a man will leave behind his father and mother and he will stick[8] to his woman; and the two will become one flesh’? [Genesis 2:24] MT19:6 So, they are no longer two but one[9] flesh. Therefore, whatever The God[10] has yoked together,[11] let no person divide them.”[12] MT19:7 Now the Pharisees asked him, “So why does Moses command a paper of dismissal and divorce?”[13] [Deuteronomy 24:1-4] MT19:8 Jesus answered them, “Moses conceded the divorcing of your women because of your hardheartedness.[14] But it was not so in the Beginning. MT19:9 I tell you this: that whoever divorces his woman[15] not for the reason of sexual immorality[16] and marries another,[17] commits adultery.”

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[1] To tempt him: See Matthew 16:1 where they first test him.

[2] Is it permissible to divorce: One wonders why the Pharisees ask this question as a test of Jesus. It is possible that because there was considerable disagreement on this subject among the Jews, they had found a perplexing question very difficult to answer without offending someone (Shammai versus Hillel schools of thought). We are very interested in how Jesus will handle this. Will he compromise? Will he rationalize an answer favorable to all? The question may also be rendered: RSV: Is it lawful.

“Divorce” in Hebrew carries several meanings: Deuteronomy 22:19, “send away”; Leviticus 22:13, “drive out”; Deuteronomy 24:1, 3 “a bill of divorcement” means literally in Hebrew, “a book of cutting off.” Regarding Jewish divorce see Josephus (Jewish Antiquities, XV, 259 [vii, 10]; 4. 8. 23). Note that in Malachi 2:16 Yehowah says, “I hate divorce.”

[3] For any cause: The problem resulted from the Jewish interpretation of Deuteronomy 24:1-4. Jewish men could divorce for almost any reason. This could include, according to at least one rabbi, that if a man found a more desirable and lovely woman. Note, however, that the Law did not provide for a woman divorcing her husband. On this compare the notes on Matthew 19:9.

[4] Did you never read: This introduction has a degree of cutting sarcasm to it: these are pompous and arrogant teachers of the Law who have studied the Torah completely. Jesus is not unaware of their hidden agenda.

[5] The One who created male and female: Jesus means Yehowah in the designation “the One.” He alludes to Genesis 1:26, 27.

[6] Beginning: Jesus uses the word in relation to the creation of humankind. It is the Greek ARCHES.

[7] He said: Jesus nowhere hints that he believed this One to be himself as Jehovah. We also may draw the conclusion that Jesus believed the account of Genesis. Jesus here quotes Genesis 2:24.

[8] Stick: Or, KJV: cleave; RSV: joined. The Greek is KOLLETHESETAI. It is drawn from the root KOLLA which means to “glue.”

[9] No longer two but one: Or, NEB: it follows that they are no longer two individuals; PME: no longer two separate people, but one. We must make a note that this word “one” is taken by Trinitarians in some mystical form as if it proves their doctrine. On this issue research the text Genesis 2:24 in Nazarene Commentary as well as the Hebrew echad.

[10] The God: The Greek is HO THEOS as it is in most cases of designating the Father of Jesus, Yehowah. Research the Greek HO THEOS.

[11] Yoked together: Or, KJV: joined together. Marriage is the “yoking” of two different people. The word conveys the idea of two equal beasts of burden under the same yoke (Numbers 19:2; Deuteronomy 21:3; 1 Samuel 6:7). The Law forbade yoking animals of different strength. The Greek word-group, ZYGOS, ZEUGOS has the thought of a yoke and are rooted in ZEUGNYMI meaning “yoke; couple; join; bind; unite together.” The Greek ZEUGOS may include “a pair” or “yoke” as in Luke 2:24; 14:19, a “pair of turtledoves.” Birds such as these mate for life.

[12] Let no person divide them: Or, KJV: put asunder; TCNT: must not separate. The main “person” or “man” here would be the husband.

[13] A paper of dismissal and divorce: A reference to Deuteronomy 24:1-4. Or, KJV: a writing of divorcement; KNX: a writ of separation; TCNT: serve his wife with a notice of separation.

[14] Because of your hardheartedness: The Nazarene gives the reason for divorce: the hard hearts of males. Or, KJV: the hardness of your hearts; NEB: because you were so unteachable; WMS: because of your moral perversity; PME: because you knew so little of the meaning of love.

[15] Whoever divorces his woman: This verse has come in for considerable debate and discussion because Matthew, Mark and Luke read each differently. Only Mark 10:12 adds, “…and if ever a woman, after divorcing her husband, marries another, she commits adultery.” This liberated women to seek their own divorce. However, the grounds for divorce remain the same in both cases.

[16] The reason of sexual immorality: Jesus gives only one reason. The Greek here is PORNEIA and is worthy of considerable research. The word is also rendered: RHM: unfaithfulness; RSV: unchastity; GDSP: her unfaithfulness. The root of PORNEIA is from “to buy” as in the purchase price of a prostitute and so “fornication” first became synonymous with “prostitution.” (Genesis 38:24; Exodus 34:16; Hosea 1:2; Leviticus 19:29) The word occurs about 65 times in the Bible. Most often in Hosea (17) and secondly in 1 Corinthians (11). In the Christian Bible fornication is incest (1 Corinthians 5:1), adultery (1 Thessalonians 4:3), a sin against one’s own body (1 Corinthians 6:18), “unnatural” sex (Jude 7). Paul alludes to Numbers 25:1+ and the fornication of Israelite men with Moabite women, possibly temple harlots as religious worship is associated.

  1. F. Westcott, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians (1906, p. 76) defines PORNEIA: “This is a general term for all unlawful intercourse, (I) adultery: Hos. 2:2, 4 (LXX); Matt. 5:32; 19:9; (2) unlawful marriage, 1 Cor. 5:1; (3) fornication, the common sense as here [Eph 5:3].” Bauer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (revised by F. W. Gingrich and F. Danker, 1979, p. 693) defines PORNEIA as “prostitution, unchastity, fornication, of every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse.” “Fornication” is generally related to adultery, rape, and prostitution (Genesis 34:1, 2, 6, 7, 31; Genesis 38:24-26; Genesis 39:7-9).

The question may be raised whether sexual intercourse between two consenting persons who intend to marry is “fornication.” Some would state that it is. However, we are unable to find a single case where sex between engaged persons is considered “fornication.” Virtually every occurrence of “fornication” is limited to rape, adultery, incest, or prostitution. Indeed, the word “prostitution” could replace “fornication” in the Prophet Hosea and most of the cases elsewhere. While adulterous persons were stoned under the Law, couples (engaged or not) who had sexual intercourse were not stoned but required to marry, the male giving up divorce rights and required to pay a fine to the father of the woman (Exodus 22:16, 17; Deuteronomy 22:28, 29).

Since “fornication” is strongly prohibited to Christians it is necessary that each disciple research fornication, read and meditate on these verses and their related principles.

[17] Marries another: If one divorces and does not remarry adultery is not committed. Compare Mark 10:11, “Whoever divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery against her.” Luke 16:18, “Everyone that divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery, and he that marries a woman divorced from a husband commits adultery.”

 

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Preceding

Matthew 19:1-2 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: From Galilee to Judah

Find extra verses to think about: Matthew 19:3-9 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Grounds for Divorce – additional verses

Matthew 5:31-32 – 3. The Nazarene’s Commentary on Deuteronomy 24:1

Matthew 5:31-32 – 3. The Nazarene’s Commentary on Deuteronomy 24:1

MT5:31 “But, it was said: ‘Whoever releases his woman, let him give her a divorce certificate.’[1] [Deuteronomy 24:1] MT5:32 But, I tell you: Any man who divorces his woman[2] except on account of fornication[3] causes her to commit adultery. Any who marry the divorced woman commit adultery.

[1] Give her a divorce certificate: For the second time the context deals with women and the attitude of men toward them. This is a revolutionary idea (Matthew 2:14-16; Mark 10:11, 12; Luke 16:18; 1 Corinthians 7:10, 11). Much of the Nazarene’s teachings lead to the emancipation of women. In Mark’s account (Mark 10:12) women are included in this matter of divorce. Female divorce was not covered in the Law of Moses nor in most legislation of nations. Compare the response of the male disciples of the Nazarene at Matthew 19:3-12 where they suggest its better not to marry at all if the only grounds for divorce was adultery. Note Paul’s encouragement of celibacy without condemning marriage (1 Corinthians ch 7).

[2] Woman: The Greek is GYNAIKA and like many languages there is no word for “wife” and the married woman is implied by the context.

[3] Fornication: This is the Greek PORNEIAS which is rooted in “to buy” and first implies prostitution but later includes all forms of sexual improprieties which one might “buy” from a harlot. In the Law of Moses engaged couples who had intercourse were not stoned to death, but the male had to marry the girl, pay a price to her father, and give up his rights of divorce. PORNEIA is the root of “pornography.” The word occurs three times in Matthew (Matthew 5:32, 15:19, 19:9) and occurs once in Mark 7:21. The Apostolic Body warns the Non-Jews of it at Acts 15:20, 29. Paul uses the word most often in seven of his letters. The glorified Christ warns of it in his letters to the “angels” at Revelation 2:14, 20. Revelation 21:8 and 22:15 may infer “fornication” occurs during the 1,000 years, outside of the New Jerusalem. The Nazarene teaches that “fornication” is one of those things which ‘defile’ a person (Matthew 15:9; Mark 7:21). “Fornication” may include unnatural sexual practices as shown by Jude 6, 7.

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Preceding:

Nazarene Commentary Matthew 5:27-30 – 2. The Nazarene’s Commentary on Exodus 20:14

Object of first woe

Hebraic Roots Bible 1 Corinthians 6:15-20 – Flee fornication and be joined to our Master

Next: Matthew 5:33-37 – 4. The Nazarene’s Commentary on Numbers 30:3

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Additional reading

  1. Being religious has benefits even in this life
  2. The 1st Adam in the Hebrew Scriptures #3 With his partner
  3. Marriage of Jesus 3 Listening women
  4. Marriage of Jesus 8 Wife of Yahweh
  5. What Does The Bible Say About….Fornication?
  6. Relationships and Sexuality Awareness Day
  7. Manifests for believers #2 Changing celibacy requirement
  8. Different assessment criteria and a new language to be found for communicating the faith
  9. Bible Guidelines for a happy marriage
  10. Youngsters, parents and the search to root in life
  11. Forced marriage and Islam
  12. Parenting in changing times
  13. Two synods and life in the church community
  14. A Synod to speak freely and to listen without reservations
  15. 72 Synod Fathers on the topic “The vocation and mission of the family in the Church and the contemporary world”
  16. The Catholic synod on the family and abortion
  17. In marriage not wounding each other

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