An other Christian site – Een andere Christelijke site

Posts tagged ‘New Age’

Mark 4 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Mark 4:14-20 – Sower Parable Explained

Mark 4:14-20 – Sower Parable Explained

|| Matthew 13:18-23;[1] Luke 8:11-15

MK4:14 “The Sower sows the Word. MK4:15 Now those by the side of the road where the Word is sown, when they hear Satan arrives instantly and takes away the Word that was sown in their hearts. MK4:16 And in the same way those sown on rocky soil, these are those who when they have heard the Word receive it at first with great joy. MK4:17 But, without any real roots they endure only for a little while, and as soon as trouble or oppression occurs because of the Word, they instantly stumble. MK4:18 Now those that are sown among the thorns, these are those who hear the Word, MK4:19 but the anxieties of this period of time,[2] and the seduction of riches choke the Word,[3] and it becomes unfruitful. MK4:20 Finally, those who are sown in good soil are those who hear the Word and welcome it and also produce fruitage – some thirty, some sixty, and some one-hundred.”


[1] Matthew 13:18-23: For details see notes in Nazarene Commentary 2000 on Matthew.

[2] Anxieties of this period of time: Or, KJV: cares of this world; NEB: worldly cares; GDS: worries of the time; MON: anxieties of life. [1 John 2:15-17]

“15 Do not continue loving the world-order of humanity, nor the things in the world-order of humanity. If anyone ever loves the world-order of humanity then the love of the Father is not in such a person. 16 Because everything in the world-order of humanity – the desire of the flesh and the desire of the eyes and the prideful display of possessions of this life – it is not of the Father but it is from the world-order of humanity. 17 For the world-order of humanity is going its way and its desire with it, but the person doing the will of The God will remain throughout that new Age to come.” (1Jo 2:15-17 mhm)

[3] The seduction of riches choke the Word: Or, KJV: the deceitfulness of riches; RIE: lure of; NEB: false glamour of wealth; WMS: deceiving pleasures of being rich. [1 John 2:15-17]



Matthew 13:10-15 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Why Speak in Parables?

Mark 4 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Mark 4:1-9 – Teaching in Parables

Mark 4 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Mark 4:10-13 – How Will You Understand?


Additional reading

  1. Seeds, weeds and kingdoms
  2. Jesus the Storyteller 2 Interpreting Jesus’ stories
  3. The Parable of the Sower



  1. Speaking in Parables
  2. Parable of the Sower
  3. The Parable of the Sower
  4. We Are the Soil
  5. What kind of seed are you?
  6. What Kind Of Soil Does Your Seed Grow In
  7. The Garden of our Heart
  8. The Seeds We are Called to Sow
  9. Seeds and Me
  10. Sunday Sermon: Sowing Discipleship
  11. Aim To Pass The Test
  12. How Is Your Hearing?
  13. Exploring The Parable of the Sower
  14. The Parable of the Sower in Modern Day
  15. Matthew 13: Jesus, the Greatest Storyteller Speaks in Parables to Bring the Kingdom to Us
  16. Overcoming the Thorns
  17. Mark 4:18-19
  18. What You Can’t Buy
  19. Search Me, God

Matthew 12:31-32 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Blasphemy against the Pneuma

Matthew 12:31-32 – Blasphemy against the Pneuma

|| Luke 12:10

MT12:31 “Because of this I tell you: Every human sin[1] and blasphemy[2] will be canceled,[3] but blasphemy against the Pneuma[4] will not be canceled. MT12:32 And so whoever speaks a word against the Son[5] of Humankind – it will be canceled. However, anyone who speaks against the Holy Pneuma,[6] it will not be canceled – not in this Age,[7] nor in the New Age.[8]


[1] Every human sin: This is the first case of the word “sin” from Jesus’ mouth. The word occurs only 3 times in Matthew (See Matthew 18:15, 21).

In cartoons and comics, profanity is often depicted by substituting symbols for words (“grawlixes” in the lexicon of cartoonist Mort Walker)

[2] Blasphemy: The Greek is BLASPHEMIA and is also rendered: RHM: profane speaking; TCNT: slander; GDSP: abusive speech; WEY: impious word.

[3] Canceled: The Greek is APHETHESETAI. See the notes on Matthew 6:12. Often translated “forgive.” In the case of judgment it means: Not Guilty; or, Guilty. Strong’s’ No. 863; aphiemi {af-ee’-ay-mee} Word Origin: from 575 and hiemi (to send, an intens. form of eimi, to go); Word Usage in KJV: leave, 52; forgive, 47; suffer, 14; let, 8; forsake, 6 let alone, 6; misc, 13.

[4] Blasphemy against the Pneuma: Note, the Nazarene says nothing about ‘blasphemy against God.’ How could one sin against Jesus (if he were The God) and not against the holy spirit? Jesus uses Pneuma as the unseen power of God. It is the same as sinning against God Himself. It is abusive speech against God’s way of doing things and those upon whom He has placed His Pneuma. Note the words of the Pharisees: they accuse of Jesus’ work as that of the Devil! Many have pained themselves out of dread they have sin against the spirit. If some so condemn themselves, it is likely they have not sinned so. Those who have blasphemed God have no repentance (Hebrews 6:4ff).

[5] Speaks a word against the Son: Note what comes later about how a person’s words either justify or condemn. Even abusive speech against the Son may be forgiven. Many have used “Jesus Christ” as a profane curse or “swear word.” Jews throughout the age have spoken against Jesus and cursed his name. Even this is forgiven.

[6] Speaks against the Holy Pneuma: Note what the Pharisees have done: they have called someone anointed with the spirit as demonized – under the influence of Satan. The speech is not against the Pneuma directly but that agent of God’s unseen spiritual pressure that accomplishes His will. This is very similar to Matthew 5:22 – addressing a genuine servant of God as an “apostate.” See notes on Matthew 5:22.

[7] Age: The Greek is AIONI. The closest English word is eon, aeon. So the closest would be, “this eon or that to come.” Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance defines it as, 1) for ever, an unbroken age, perpetuity of time, eternity; 2) the worlds, universe; 3) period of time, age. The word occurs many times with a wide range of meaning. Other renderings are: KJV: this world; TCNT: present age; NWT: system of things. There are two ages from Jesus’ standpoint: this one, and the next.

[8] New Age: Inferred. Or, KJV: world to come; TCNT: the age to come.



Matthew 12:1-8 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Something Greater than the Temple

Matthew 12:9-21 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Is It Lawful to Cure on the Sabbath?

Matthew 12:22-30 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: the Charge of Demonism


Additional reading

  1. There can only be hope when there is a will to be and say “I am”
  2. Icons and crucifixes
  3. Americans their stars, pretension, God, Allah and end of times signs #1 Abrahamic religions



  1. You Have Just Learned the Secret of All of Life, and Seen into Infinity
  2. On Purpose
  3. Jesus is the one!
  4. New Age Quackery?
  5. Wednesday 5/2 ~ People are asking, “Who is the Higher Power?”.
  6. The Search for Truth
  7. Have You Committed the Unpardonable Sin?
  8. Matthew 12, Jesus, Lord of the Sabbath,blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, the sign of Jonah, Jesus’ brothers and sisters.
  9. Blasphemy
  10. On blasphemy
  11. The root of blasphemy
  12. The Status Quo as Blasphemy of the Spirit
  13. Jesus and Beelzebub
  14. Wednesday 3/28 ~ The Holy Spirit is what?
  15. Blasphemy is an offence in a part of the UK!

Hellenistic influences

The early days of Christianity

2.1. Hellenistic influences

An ingenious and learned school, formed at Alexandria, had contrived, by a system of allegorical interpretation, to infuse Platonism into the Old Testament, the school at Jerusalem had been growing increasingly rigid, and interdicted any such daring exegesis.

In the first centuries of our current calendar the influence of the Greek culture in the Roman Realm was still noticeable and guarded Greece its cultural inheritance one of the most important universities of the Roman Realm which stood in Athens.

At the Athenian schools also Christians, like Prohæresios, the sophist, were found under its members.

Sophists (sophistēs, meaning “wise-ist, one who does wisdom,” and σοφός, sophós means “wise man”) were a category of traveling teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric for the purpose of teaching arete — excellence, or virtue — predominantly to young statesmen and nobility. As itinerant intellectuals they taught courses in various subjects, speculated about the nature of language and culture and employed rhetoric to achieve their purposes, generally to persuade or convince others which could be of good use for the youngsters to be able to have their say in the official meetings or ekklèsia (Ecclesia)

Many sophists’ questioned the existence and roles of traditional deities and investigated into the nature of the heavens and the earth, which prompted a popular reaction against them. The attacks of some of their followers against Socrates prompted a vigorous condemnation from his followers, including Plato the most famous student of Socrates, and Xenophon. The sophists became considered greedy instructors who used rhetorical sleight-of-hand and ambiguities of language in order to deceive, or to support fallacious reasoning. according to some the sophist was not concerned with truth and justice, but instead looked for power.


The martyrdom of Saint (Pope) Sixtus II and his deacons. Martyre de saint Sixte II et de ses diacres. Cote: Français 185 , Fol. 96v . Vies de saints, France, Paris – 14th century. – Richard de Montbaston et collaborateurs

Sixtus II, or Xystos, who suffered martyrdom in Rome about 258 C.T., also may have studied in Athens and is called “the son of an Athenian philosopher”. But the most noted men who frequented the schools here were Basil from Kæsareia, and Gregory from Nazianzos, about the middle of the fourth century. These schools of philosophy kept paganism alive for four centuries, but by the fifth century the ancient religion of Elevsis and Athens had practically succumbed. In the Council of Nikæa there was present a bishop from Athens. In 529 the schools of philosophy were closed. From that date Christianity had no rival in Athens.[1]

Jesus clearly taught that Jehovah is “the only true God” and that the human soul is mortal. (John 17:3; Matthew 10:28) Yet, with the death of the apostles and the weakening of the organizational structure, such clear teachings were corrupted as pagan doctrines infiltrated Christianity.

A key factor was the subtle influence of Greek philosophy. Explains The New Encyclopædia Britannica: “From the middle of the 2nd century AD Christians who had some training in Greek philosophy began to feel the need to express their faith in its terms, both for their own intellectual satisfaction and in order to convert educated pagans.” Once philosophically minded persons became Christians, it did not take long for Greek philosophy and “Christianity” to become inseparably linked.
As a result of this union, pagan doctrines such as the Trinity and the immortality of the soul seeped into tainted Christianity. These teachings, however, go back much farther than the Greek philosophers. The Greeks actually acquired them from older cultures, for there is evidence of such teachings in ancient Egyptian and Babylonian religions. As pagan doctrines continued to infiltrate Christianity, other Scriptural teachings were also distorted or abandoned.


Hermes Trismegistus

The question how the Son was related to the Father (Himself acknowledged on all hands to be the one Supreme Deity), gave rise, between the years 60 and 200 C.T. to a number of Theosophic systems, called generally Gnosticism, and having for their authors Basilides, Valentinus, apologist and ascetic Tatian the Syrian or the Assyrian , writer of the Diatessaron (a  prominent Gospel harmony) and other Greek speculators.[2] According to some, it was through Gnosticism that pagan influences slipped into Christian worship. Gnosticism, they assert, served somewhat as a bridge between paganism and Christianity.[3] The Gnostic systems revealed more theosophy than theology and in the Jewish Kabbala is found a theosophy mixed with various forms of magic and occultism. The Kabbalah, which includes the tracts named Sefer Yetzirah, The Zohar, Pardes Rimonim, and Eitz Chaim, seeks to define the nature of the universe and the human being, the nature and purpose of existence, and various other ontological questions. It also presents methods to aid understanding of these concepts and to thereby attain spiritual realisation.
The Hellenistic main source is the Corpus Hermeticum or the Hermetic Corpus, a collection of texts attributed to Hermes Trismegistus, which became again of importance in the New Age. Therein astrology and other occult sciences and spiritual renewal are addressed. Trismegistus may be a representation of the syncretic combination of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth.

Alexandria was full of Jews, the literary as well as commercial centre of the East, and the connecting link between the East and the West. There the largest libraries were collected; there the Jewish mind came into close contact with the Greek, and the religion of Moses with the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. There Philo wrote, while Christ taught in Jerusalem and Galilee, and his works were destined to exert a great influence on Christian exegesis through the Alexandrian fathers.

During the fourth century Egypt was going to give to the church the Arian heresy, the Athanasian orthodoxy, and the monastic piety of St. Antony and St. Pachomius, which spread with irresistible force over Christendom.

The theological literature of Egypt was chiefly Greek. Most of the early manuscripts of the Greek Scriptures — including probably the invaluable Sinaitic and Vatican MSS. — were written in Alexandria. But already in the second century the Scriptures were translated into the vernacular language, in three different dialects. What remains of these versions is of considerable weight in ascertaining the earliest text of the Greek Testament.

To the Jews, that were the mostly receptive for Hellenic influences, belonged the priests. For many of them meant the accepting of the Hellenism a manner to have Judaism going with its time.

While many Jews accepted the Hellenism, a new group calling themselves Hasidim or Chassidim — devout people (literally “loving kindness”, diverted of the Hebrew חסידות (chassidoet), meaning “piety”) — encouraged people to keep stricter obedience to the Law of Moses. The first group of Hasidim, also called the Assideans or Hasideans (the Anglicized form, derived through the Greek asidaioi, of the Hebrew Hasidim, “the pious”, men endowed with grace (Psalm 39:5; 148:14)), were an ancient Jewish sect that developed between 300 B.C.E. and 175 B.C.E. They were the most rigid adherents of Judaism in contradistinction to those Jews who were beginning to be affected by Hellenistic influences. The Hasidim led the resistance to the Hellenizing campaign of Antiochus IV of Syria, and they figured largely in the early phases of the revolt of the Maccabees or Machabees, Jewish family of the 2d and 1st cent. B.C.E. that brought about a restoration of Jewish political and religious life. They are also called Hasmoneans or Asmoneans after their ancestor, Hashmon. Their ritual strictness has caused some to see them as forerunners of the Pharisees. Throughout the Talmudic period numerous figures were referred to as Hasidim. [4]

The Hellenization of the Jews in the pre-Hasmonean period was not universally resisted. Generally, the Jews accepted foreign rule when they were only required to pay tribute, and otherwise allowed to govern themselves internally. Nevertheless, Jews were divided between those favoring Hellenization and those opposing it, and were divided over allegiance to the Ptolemies or Seleucids. When the High Priest Simon II died in 175 BCE, conflict broke out between supporters of his son Onias III (who opposed Hellenization, and favored the Ptolemies) and his son Jason (who favored Hellenization, and favored the Seleucids). A period of political intrigue followed, with priests such as Menelaus bribing the king to win the High Priesthood, and accusations of murder of competing contenders for the title. The result was a brief civil war. The Tobiads, a philo-Hellenistic party, succeeded in placing Jason into the powerful position of High Priest. He established an arena for public games close by the Temple. (Ginzberg, Lewis. “The Tobiads and Oniads.”. Retrieved 2007-01-23. Jewish Encyclopedia.) Author Lee I. Levine notes, “The ‘piece de resistance’ of Judaean Hellenization, and the most dramatic of all these developments, occurred in 175 BCE, when the high priest Jason converted Jerusalem into a Greek polis replete with gymnasium and ephebeion (2 Maccabees 4). Whether this step represents the culmination of a 150-year process of Hellenization within Jerusalem in general, or whether it was only the initiative of a small coterie of Jerusalem priests with no wider ramifications, has been debated for decades.” (Levine, Lee I. Judaism and Hellenism in antiquity: conflict or confluence? Hendrickson Publishers, 1998. pp. 38–45. Via “The Impact of Greek Culture on Normative Judaism.”)

The ordinary people were disgusted by the Hellenised priests and chose more and more party for the Chassidim. There broke a period of martyrdom when Jews in the whole country were forced to go along or to settle with pagan happenings and offerings or to die.[5]

A gold multiple of “Unconquered Constantine” with Sol Invictus, struck in 313. The use of Sol’s image appealed to both the educated citizens of Gaul, who would recognize in it Apollo’s patronage of Augustus and the arts; and to Christians, who found solar monotheism less objectionable than the traditional pagan pantheon

Constantine (C., Flavius Valerius Constantinus) was during the decline period of the Roman Realm the Big Emperor (306–337 C. T.) and tried to merge Christianity with particular pagan customs and doctrines. He undertook the first steps to make this merger religion as the official state religion. Accordingly Greece became a part of Christendom. He moved the capital of the realm of Rome to Byzantium, which he named in honour of himself Constantinople.

In 321 C. T. Constantine ordained that the Sunday (Lat.: dies Solis, an old title that was connected with astrology and sun worshipping, not Sabbatum [Sabbath] or dies Domini [day of the Lord]) would be a day of rest for everybody, except for the farmers. Constantine moreover placed Sunday under the protection of the State. Constantine speaks not of the day of the Lord, but of the everlasting day of the sun as the believers in Mithras also observed Sunday as well as Christmas.

The winged sun was an ancient (3rd millennium BC) symbol of Horus, later identified with Ra

Belief in the old polytheism had been shaken; in more stolid natures, as Roman Emperor Diocletian, it showed its strength only in the form of superstition, magic, and divination. Probably many of the more noble-minded recognized the truth contained in Judaism and Christianity, but believed that they could appropriate it without being obliged on that account to renounce the beauty of other worships. Such a man was the Emperor Alexander Severus; another thus minded was Aurelian, whose opinions were confirmed by Christians like Paul of Samosata. Not only Gnostics and other heretics, but Christians who considered themselves faithful, held in a measure to the worship of the sun. Constantine cherished this mistaken belief.[6]

[1] Christian Athens, Catholic Encyclopaedia, New York 1908

[2] Arianism., Catholic Encyclopaedia, New York 1908

[3] Notion and characteristics, Catholic Encyclopaedia, New York 1908

[4] In the 18th Century Eastern Europethis movement would be taken up again for the third time by Rabbi Yisroel ben Eliezer (1698-1760) also known asIsrael Baal Shem Tov as a reaction against overly legalistic Judaism.

[5] S. Lieberman, Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (1962); S. G. Kramer, God and Man in the Sefer Hasidim (1966); A. L. Lowenkopf, The Hasidim (1973).

[6] The original Catholic Encyclopedia


Some Jews are known to have engaged in non-surgical foreskin restoration in order to join the dominant cultural practice of socializing naked in the gymnasium, where their circumcisionwould have been a social stigma.


Previous: The early days of Christianity 1.2. Considered as a danger 1.2.2. Minimizing the power of God’s Force the Holy Spirit

Next: The early days of Christianity 2.2.1. Politics and power first priority

  • contemplative political philosophy (
    Contemplation has always been at the heart of liberal education.  Contemplation was known as practice, the practice of political philosophy.  All who had intimations of Socrates’ presence and purpose knew it.  Contemplation was (and is) an activity of mind-body.  Athletics (what the Greeks called gymnastics) was no less education than music and the performing arts.  Together these formed an organic whole in the image of a human creature.
  • Local Deities? Mystery Cults and Osiris and Isis. Soul and Spirit. (
    Koester says that “The old Greek religion was a religion of city gods”, in which gods were the patrons of cities.  He says on pages 164-165 that “None of these cults would ever claim to be a world religion since the belief that deities were bound to particular holy places was still very much alive.”  But Koester narrates that people moved around and economics, politics, and science became increasingly universal, and so people were becoming dissatisfied with local deities.
    In Christianity, Jesus dies and rises again, whereas it is not said in the myth of Osiris that Osiris was resurrected, but Osiris after his death goes to the realm of the dead to rule, while his son takes charge of this world.
    Koester makes interesting points about the goddess Isis.  For one, he says that the woman in Revelation 12 resembles Isis, which stood out to me, as one who was raised in a denomination that tried to disassociate from the “pagan” elements of the “world’s” Christianity.  Second, according to Koester on page 189, Isis in Apuleius’ Metamorphoses 11.5.1-3 is treated as the “one and only god” and “ruler of the the universe” (Koester’s words).  As I look at the passage itself, there seems to be therein an acknowledgement that other gods exist, but there’s also an affirmation that Isis is “The single form that fuses all gods and goddesses” (the passage’s words).
  • Baptism of Pagan Practices (
    Mount Carmel was previously a pagan site. In the Old Testament, we see that it was there that Yahwhey and Elijah took on Jezebel and the priests of Baal. Anti-Catholic conspiracy theorists eat this up, of course, but in reality, history has unfolded with Our Lord as the victor. This is just one of the several instances where that ancient serpent has been “crushed by the heel of Our Lady” – one of Christ’s most powerful tools.
    there were bound to have been some parallels of Christian truth among pre-Christian beliefs and rituals. The early Christians were well aware of this and sometimes used it to their advantage in order to convert the pagans. In fact, St. Paul does this very thing in the Acts of the Apostles. I think of Paul as the father of the interpolation tactic described there. Unlike the Twelve, he was well educated in Hellenistic as well as Jewish law and religion, which is why I believe Christ chose him with a special purpose as “Apostle to the Gentiles”. He was a huckleberry who knew his stuff and how to use it to reach them.
  • Ancient Hellenistic Harbor Discovered in Acre, Israel – Bloomberg (
    An ancient harbor where warships may have docked 2,300 years ago has been discovered by archaeologists in the Israeli port city of Acre.The harbor, the largest and most important found in Israel from the Hellenistic period, was uncovered during archaeological excavations carried out as part of a seawall conservation project, the Israel Antiquities Authority said today. Among the finds were large mooring stones incorporated in the quay and used to secure sailing vessels, the IAA said.
    The excavation will continue in those sections of the harbor that extend in the direction of the sea, the IAA said. The archaeologists will try to clarify if there is a connection between the destruction of the harbor and the Hasmonean uprising in 167 B.C., the destruction wrought by Ptolemy in 312 B.C. or some other event.
  • We owe a cock to Asclepius (
    SO were the final, last Words said by Socrates.
    No one could help by then, Even Hippocrates.
    if YOU’VE said it once you’ve said One thousand times.
    I Don’t only say it because that line rhymes.
  • Live as the world wishes you to and accept all events: Stoic Philosophy (by Devin) (
    Stoicism was founded in Athens by Zeno in early 3rd century, it was originally taught by him at the Stoa Poikile. Another famous stoic is Marcus Aurelius, a famous roman emperor. The discipline of Stoicism teaches self-control as a means of defeating destructive emotions, which they believed were caused by errors in judgment and would not be felt by a true sage. Stoicism became the foremost philosophy among the leaders of Hellenistic and Roman society.
  • Pherecydes of Leros [Pherecydes of Athens] (
    Dionysus leading the Horae.
    [Day of Saturn + Hour of Mercury]
    Hermes I call, whom Fate decrees to dwell in the dire path which leads to deepest hell
    O Bacchic [Bakkheios] Hermes, progeny divine of Dionysius [Dionysos], parent of the vine,
    And of celestial Venus [Aphrodite] Paphian queen, dark eye-lash’d Goddess of a lovely mien:

Hellenistische invloeden

De vroege dagen van het Christendom

2. Hellenistische invloeden

In de eerste eeuwen van de gewone tijdrekening was de invloed van de Griekse cultuur in het Romeinse Rijk nog steeds merkbaar en behoedde Griekenland zijn culturele erfgoed; een van de belangrijkste universiteiten van het Romeinse Rijk stond in Athene.

Bij de Atheense scholen konden onder haar leden ook Christenen, zoals Prohæresios, de sofist, gevonden worden. (σοφιστης; sophistés, kan het best vertaald worden als geleerde of deskundige. Sophos of sophia betekende “wijs”)

Vooral tijdens de periode van de 2e helft van de 5e eeuw v.G.T. kon men meestal rondreizende “beroepsdenkers” aantreffen die hun encyclopedische vakkennis inzake wiskunde, literatuur, filosofie en vooral ook welsprekendheid, praktische staatkunde en recht, tegen (hoge) betaling dienstbaar maakten aan de opleiding van de rijpere jeugd uit de gegoede middenklasse. Zo zorgden dezen dat hun leerlingen door middel van onderwijs op het vlak van kennisleer en welsprekendheid op geleid werden tot bekwame mensen die een leidende rol zouden kunnen spelen in de gedemocratiseerde maatschappij en in staat waren het woord te nemen in de volksvergadering (Grieks: ekklèsia).

De sofisten, aan wie de eer toe komt om als eersten de wetten van het denken te hebben gesystematiseerd (logica), kwamen uit vrijwel alle gebieden van de Griekse wereld en doceerden in bijna alle steden.

Zij waren ook de voorlopers van de socratische dialectiek en van aristotelische logica. Latere sofisten waren meer op materieel succes uit en benadrukten het belang van retoriek als de kunst van de overtuiging in de politiek, in de rechtszaal of in andere discussies. Tegen deze praktijk nam Socrates stelling, want waarheid kon volgens hem niet afhankelijk zijn van degene die het overtuigendst op gevoelens inpraatte en met alle mogelijke middelen zijn gelijk probeerde te halen. Op die manier werd een slechte zaak immers als goed voorgesteld. Vooral onder invloed van de dialogen van Plato en Xenophon, kregen de sofisten een kwalijke reputatie, en werd sofistiek verbonden met een manier van redeneren waarbij drogredenen werden gebruikt (sofismen). Zij werden door sommigen er van beschuldigt eerder uit te zijn op macht dat te zoeken naar waarheid en gerechtigheid.

The "obscene" medieval depiction of ...

Obscene middeleeuwse voorstelling van Socrates en Plato

Ook Sixtus II, of Xystos, die aan martelaarschap leed in Rome ongeveer rond 258 G.T., kan ook in Athene gestudeerd hebben en is de „zoon van een Atheense filosoof“. Maar de meest genoteerde mensen die deze scholen frequenteerden waren Basil van Kæsareia, en Gregorius van Nazianzos, rond het midden van de vierde eeuw. Deze scholen van filosofie hielden het heidendom voor vier eeuwen levend, maar tegen de vijfde eeuw was de oude godsdienst van Elevsis en Athene praktisch bezweken. In de Raad van Nikæa was er een bisschop van Athene aanwezig. In 529 waren de scholen van filosofie gesloten. Van die datum had het christendom geen rivaal meer in Athene.[1]

De Nazarener Jood Jezus kreeg bij de doop door zijn neef Johannes een wolk en duif boven hem, waarbij de stem van God te kennen gaf dat hij de “zoon van God” was.  God zij niet “dit ben ik hier in menselijke gedaante” of “ziehier God de zoon“. Tijdens zijn openbaar leven leerde Jezus de mensen ook dat er slechts één ware God was tussen de vele goden die werden aanbeden door de verschillende volkeren. Hij aanschouwde zijn vader in de hemel als de Allerhoogste God. Eveneens leerde hij de mensen dat de ziel, het eigenlijke levensbestaan van de mens beperkt in de tijd was. Elke mens was volgens Jezus sterfelijk. (Johannes 17:3; Mattheus 10:28) Bij de dood van de apostelen kwam er een verzwakking in de originele structuur van de geloofsvereniging en werden zulke leerstellingen vermengd met heidense leerstellingen. Het christendom raakte alom meer bezoedeld door die heidense en hellenistische gedachten.

Ook de Naam van God, Jehovah, die Jezus zeer belangrijk vond, werd meer opzij geschoven ten voordele van andere namen. De voorkeur om de godheid meerdere persoonlijkheden toe te kennen zoals in het hellenistische systeem bracht mee dat verscheidene christenen hun godheid ook gingen opsplitsen in drie persoonlijkheden, de geboorte van de zogenaamde Heilige Drie-eenheid. Het zou echter nog enkele decennia duren eer de drievuldigheid grote navolging kreeg.

Als gevolg van de vermenging van de verscheidene geloofsideeën werden heidense doctrines zoals de Drie-eenheidsleer en de onsterfelijkheid van de ziel al sijpelde opgenomen in de christelijke leer om deze te bederven. Deze leringen gaan echter veel verder terug dan de Griekse filosofen. De Grieken verworven ze daadwerkelijk van oudere culturen, want er is bewijs van een dergelijk onderricht in de oude Egyptische en Babylonische religies. Zoals andere heidense doctrine bleef zij het christendom infiltreren en werden andere Schriftuurlijke leerstellingen ook vervormd of verlaten.

Arabisch Diatessaron, Vertaald door Abul Faraj Al Tayyeb van Syrisch naar Arabisch, 11e eeuw

De vraag welke betrekking de Zoon had tegenover de Vader (zelf erkend bij allen om één Opperste Godheid te zijn), gaf een toename tussen de jaren. 60 en 200 G.T.,  aan een aantal Theosofische systemen, over het algemeen Gnosticisme genoemd, met als voorname auteurs Basilides, Valentinus, Tatianus de Syriër, ontwerper van het Diatessaron (‘Uit vier samengesteld’; geschreven tussen 170 en 180), een harmonie van de vier evangeliën, en andere Griekse speculanten.[2] Volgens sommigen was het door Gnosticisme dat heidense invloeden in de Christelijke verering zijn toegetreden. Gnosticisme, beweren zij, diende dan enigszins als brug tussen heidendom en christendom.[3] De Gnostische systemen openbaarden meer theosofie dan theologie. Zo ook in de Joodse kabbala, met de  Sefer Yetzirah, The Zohar, Pardes Rimonim, en Eitz Chaim, waarin de leer van een geheime, mystieke interpretatie van de Torah wordt gegeven, treft men de theosofie aan die een oplossing zoekt te vinden voor de natuurverschijnselen en de bedoeling van het bestaan De verscheidene ontologische vragen brachten een vermenging in de godsdienst met diverse vormen van magie en occultisme.

Flemish edition of the Corpus Hermeticum or the Hermetic Corpus

Corpus Hermeticum, Vlaamse uitgave uit 1643

De belangrijkste hellenistische bron is het Corpus Hermeticum, een verzameling teksten toegeschreven aan Hermes Trismegistus wiens leerstellingen weer erg relevant werden in de New Age. Daarin worden astrologie en andere occulte wetenschappen behandeld, alsook spirituele vernieuwing.

Alexandrië, vol Joden, was het literaire evenals commerciële centrum van het Oosten, en het verbindende verband tussen het Oosten en het Westen. Daar werden de grootste bibliotheken verzameld; daar kwam de Joodse geest dicht in contact met de Griekse, en de godsdienst van Mozes met de filosofie van Plato en Aristoteles. Daar schreef Philo, terwijl Christus in Jeruzalem en Galilea onderwees, en zijn werken waren bestemd om een grote invloed op Christelijke exegese door de Alexandrische vaders uit te oefenen.

Tijdens de vierde eeuw ging Egypte aan de kerk de Ariaanse, Athanasian orthodoxie, en kloosterpiëteit van St. Antonius en St. Pachomius geven, die met onweerstaanbare kracht over het christendom uitspreiden.

De theologische literatuur van Egypte was voornamelijk Grieks. De meeste vroege manuscripten van de Griekse Geschriften – inclusief de waarschijnlijk onschatbare Sinaitische en Vaticaanse Manuscripten omvattend. – werden geschreven in Alexandrië. Maar reeds in de tweede eeuw werd de Heilige Schrift vertaald in de lokale taal, in drie verschillende dialecten. Wat van deze versies overblijft is van aanzienlijk gewicht in het nagaan van de vroegste tekst van het Griekse Testament.

Tot de joden die het meest ontvankelijk waren voor hellenistische invloeden, behoorden de priesters. Voor velen van hen betekende het aanvaarden van het hellenisme een manier om het judaïsme met zijn tijd te laten meegaan.

Terwijl veel joden het hellenisme aanvaardden, moedigde een nieuwe groep die zich Hasidim of Chassidim noemde — vromen (letterlijk “liefhebbende vriendelijkheid”, afgeleid van het Hebreeuwse חסידות (chassidoet), dat “vroomheid” betekent) —, aan tot striktere gehoorzaamheid aan de wet van Mozes of Mozaïsche Wet.

De eerste groep Hasidim, ook genoemd Chasideeën of Assideeën (Hebreeuws: חסידים Hassidim, “Integeren” of “Vromen”; Koinè: Ἁσιδαίοι Asidaioi) of Hasideans (afgeleid van het Griekse asidaioi, of van het Hebreeuwse Hasidim, “het vrome”), waren een oude Joodse sekte die zich tussen 300 en 175 V.G.T. ontwikkelde. Zij waren de stijfste aanhangers van Judaïsme in tegenstelling tot die Joden die door Hellenistische invloeden waren beïnvloed. Hasidim leidde de weerstand tegen de hellenizerings campagne van Antiochus IV van Syrië, en zij kwamen grotendeels in de vroege fasen van de opstand voor van Maccabeeën of Machabees, Joodse families van de 2d en 1st eeuw voor Christus welke een restauratie van het Joodse politieke en godsdienstige leven bewerkstelligde. Zij worden ook Hasmoneans of Asmoneans genoemd naar hun voorvader, Hashmon. Hun rituele striktheid heeft sommigen veroorzaakt om hen als voorlopers van Farizeeërs te zien. Doorheen de Talmoedische periode werden talrijke als Hasidim omschreven.[4] Het gewone volk walgde nu van de gehelleniseerde priesters en koos meer en meer partij voor de Chassidim. Er brak een periode van martelaarschap aan toen joden in het hele land werden gedwongen zich in heidense gebruiken en offers te schikken of te sterven.[5]

De hellenisering van de Joden in de pre-Hasmoneaanse periode werd niet door iedereen weerstaan. In het algemeen, accepteerden de Joden vreemde overheersing wanneer ze enkel werden gevraagd om er erkenning aan te geven. Wanneer zij formeel alleen maar hulde hoefden te brengen te brengen, en zich verder zelf intern mochten besturen was er geen probleem . Toch geraakten de Joden verdeeld tussen dezen die  de hellenisering begunstigden  en diegenen die zich daar  tegenover verzetten. Zo groeide de verdeeldheid tussen hen die trouw aan de Ptolemaeën verkozen, en diegenen die de Seleuciden verkozen. Toen hogepriester Simon II stierf in 175 vGT, brak er een conflict uit tussen de aanhangers van zijn zoon Onias III (die tegen hellenisering was, en de Ptolemaeën verkoos) en zijn zoon Jason (die de voorkeur gaf aan hellenisering, en de Seleuciden verkoos). Een periode van politieke intriges volgde, met priesters zoals Menelaus die de koning omkocht voor het hoge priesterschap te verkrijgen, en beschuldigingen van moord van concurrerende kanshebbers voor de titel. Het resultaat was een korte burgeroorlog. De Tobiads, een filo-Hellenistische partij, slaagden er in om Jason in de machtige positie van de Hogepriester te plaatsen. Hij vestigde een arena voor openbare spelen dicht bij de tempel. (Ginzberg, Lewis. “The Tobiads and Oniads.”. Retrieved 2007-01-23. Jewish Encyclopedia.) Auteur Lee I. Levine merkt op: “De ‘pièce de resistance’ van Judese hellenisering, en de meest dramatische van al deze ontwikkelingen, kwam in 175 vGT toen de hogepriester Jason Jeruzalem bekeerde tot een Griekse polis vol met gymnasiums en ephebeion (2 Makkabeeën 4). Of deze stap het hoogtepunt van een 150-jaar durend proces van hellenisering werd binnen Jeruzalem in het algemeen, of dat het slechts het initiatief was van een kleine kliek van Jeruzalemse priesters zonder wijdere vertakkingen, is voor decennia besproken geworden. “(Levine, Lee I. jodendom en hellenisme in de oudheid: conflict of samenvloeiing Hendrickson Publishers, 1998 pp 38 tot 45 Via.. “De impact van de Griekse cultuur op normatieve jodendom.”)

Sint Constantijn (Άγιος Κωνσταντίνος); deel van een Kretenzische icoon waarop ook Sint Helena staat afgebeeld.

Sint Constantijn (Άγιος Κωνσταντίνος); deel van een Kretenzische icoon waarop ook Sint Helena staat afgebeeld.
Foto: RKK

Constantijn (C., Flavius Valerius Constantinus) trachtte het christendom met bepaalde heidense gebruiken en leerstellingen te versmelten, en hij ondernam de eerste stappen om deze fusiereligie tot de officiële staatsreligie te maken. Aldus werd Griekenland een deel van de christenheid.

Constantijn was tijdens de vervalperiode van het Romeinse Rijk de Grote keizer (306–337 G.T.) en verplaatste de hoofdstad van het Romeinse rijk van Rome naar Byzantium, welk hij ter ere van zichzelf Constantinopel noemde.

In 321 G.T. verordende Constantijn dat de zondag (Lat.: dies Solis, een oude titel die verband hield met astrologie en zonaanbidding, niet Sabbatum [sabbat] of dies Domini [dag des Heren]) een rustdag voor iedereen, behalve voor de boeren, zou zijn. Constantijn bovendien plaatste de zondag onder de bescherming van de Staat. Constantijn spreekt niet van de dag van de Heer, maar van de eeuwige dag van de zon zoals de gelovigen in Mithras ook zondag evenals Kerstmis waarnamen.

Mesopotamische kalksteen rolzegel en afdruk: verering van Šamaš de zonnegod (Louvre)

Geloof in het oude polytheïsme was door elkaar geschud; in flegmatieker naturen, als de Romeinse keizer Diocletianus, en toonde haar kracht enkel in de vorm van bijgeloof, magie en waarzegging. Waarschijnlijk erkenden veel van de meer edelmoedigen de waarheid in Judaïsme en christendom, maar geloofden dat zij er deel van konden gaan uitmaken zonder verplicht te worden te verzaken aan hun heidense praktijken en verering van o.a. hemellichamen. Zulk iemand was Keizer Alexander Severus; een andere gelijkdenkende was Aurelian, wiens opinies bevestigd werden door Christenen zoals Paulus van Samosata. Niet alleen Gnostici en andere ketters, maar ook Christenen die zich als gelovige beschouwden, namen de maatregelen aan om de zon te vereren. Ook Constantijn koesterde dit verkeerde geloof.[6]

[1] Christian Athens, Catholic Encyclopaedia, New York 1908

[2] Arianism., Catholic Encyclopaedia, New York 1908

[3] Notion and characteristics, Catholic Encyclopaedia, New York 1908

[4] In de 18de Eeuw zou deze beweging opnieuw, voor de derde keer, opgenomen worden, maar nu in Oost Europa, door rabbijn Yisroel ben Eliezer (1698-1760) ook gekend als Rabijn Israël Baal Shem Tov (Hebreeuws voor Meester van de Goede Naam)als reactie tegen overdreven legalistische Judaïsme.

[5] S. Lieberman, Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (1962); S. G. Kramer, God and Man in the Sefer Hasidim (1966); A. L. Lowenkopf, The Hasidim (1973).

[6] The original Catholic Encyclopedia

Tag Cloud

Age To Come

The Lord Jesus Christ is the last Adam, not the first God-man. ~~~


I go undercover in the Jehovah's Witness Church

Jehovah's Zsion, Zion and Sion Mom Signal for the Peoples!

Thy Empire and Kingdom Zsion Come as In Heavens So on Earth. Diatheke. Matthew.6.10, Tanakh.Psalm.87 and


Doxology rooted in Theology: Nothing more, Nothing less


A discussion of interesting books from my current stock at

Unmasking anti Jehovah sites and people

Showing the only One True God and the Way to That God

The Eccentric Fundamentalist

Musings on theology, apologetics, practical Christianity and God's grace in salvation through Jesus Christ

John 20:21

"As the Father has sent me, so I am sending you."

The Biblical Review

Reviewing Publications, History, and Biblical Literature

Words on the Word

Blog by Abram K-J


Hier bestudeer ons die redes vir die verskille in Bybelvertalings.

Michael Bradley - Time Traveler

The official website of Michael Bradley - Author of novels, short stories and poetry involving the past, future, and what may have been.


"Be faithful unto death, and I will give you the crown of life." Revelation 2:10

God's Simple Kindness

God's Word Made Simple


All the Glory to God

Groen is Gezond

van zaadjes in volle grond tot iets lekkers op het bord

Jesse A. Kelley

A topnotch site


JW Current Apostate Status and Final Temple Judgment - Web Witnessing Record; The Bethel Apostasy is Prophecy

Sophia's Pockets

Wisdom Withouth Walls


Spiritual Shots to Fuel the Conqueror Lifestyle

%d bloggers like this: