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Posts tagged ‘Sukkot’

The Advent of the saviour to Roman oppression

Before Roman Judean rule

Rome, Ara Pacis museum: cast of a portrait of ...

Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus – Rome, Ara Pacis museum

The Trojan refugee Aeneas had escaped to Italy and founded the line of Romans through his son Iulus, the namesake of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The Year of the Consulship of Balbus and Vetus was gone by and the Rome considered to have become a real Roman Empire bastion (on 21 April 753 bCE) had sent their conquerors also to the East. One of the most prominent patrician houses at Rome which were known for their pride and arrogance and intense hatred of the commonalty, brought Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus better known simply as Tiberius Claudius Nero. After he had divorced Vipsania Agrippina, he had married Augustus’ daughter Julia the Elder (from his marriage to Scribonia) and was adopted by Augustus, by which act he officially became a Julian, bearing the name Tiberius Julius Caesar. {Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus, grand-uncle of Caligula, paternal uncle of Claudius, and great-grand uncle of Nero.}

On the verge of accepting command in the East and becoming the second most powerful man in Rome, Tiberius suddenly announced his withdrawal from politics and retired to Rhodes, possibly as an interim solution: he would hold power only until his stepsons would come of age, and then be swept aside.

Instalment of Roman client king of Judea

Rome, Ara Pacis museum: collection of casts of...

Rome, Ara Pacis museum: collection of casts of busts showing the members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Picture by Giovanni Dall’Orto, March 28 2008. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In in 63 BCE the Romans had taken over control of Syria, and then intervened in the Hasmonean civil war. A Roman client king of Judea was installed. But he seemed for many “the evil genius of the Judean nation” {Tierney, John. “Herod: Herod the Great”, Catholic Encyclopedia (1910): “Herod, surnamed the Great, called by Grätz “the evil genius of the Judean nation” (Hist., v. II, p. 77)} Though the Jews were granted exemptions from the official Roman state religion, they were not happy with this ambitious man and saw their tribe threatened very hard by this ruthless savage. For others he was Herod the Great (not to be confused with Herod Antipas who came later) and became known as Herod I. He has been described as “a madman who murdered his own family and a great many rabbis“.

Worshippers of One God

By the Greek experience they had learned that others could not be forced to worship their idols and they saw for themselves that the Jews, who only wanted to worship One God, were not like other pagan people who had already several gods and perhaps could have advantage in some extra ones. By the years the Jews had prove that they were not going to conform to a worship which would not have been according to their Laws of worship. So the Romans granted the Jews an official status of being exempt from Roman state religion when they were willing to pay their punitive tax called fiscus Judaicus.

At the time Judea was a very important place for several major trade routes. It was sort of like the great way-station for the incense trade coming from Yemen up the Arabian Peninsula and going out to the Mediterranean. It was also one of the most agriculturally productive pieces of land in the Middle East famous for its olive oil (which was used as a main source of light, and not just for cooking), for its dates (the chief sweetener in the times before sugar), and for its wine.

Thorn in the flesh for the Jews

Roman Theatre

Roman Theatre

A thorn in the flesh was the centre of trade and the Roman administrative capitol of Judea, the artificial port city of Caesarea (one of the two largest in the Empire). Like in the most important Roman cities there was a beautiful amphitheatre, a hippodrome for chariot races and people could gamble and enjoy life or give one’s desires in their pleasure gardens. There was also a huge temple dedicated to the Roman god-emperor, Augustus Caesar.

Temples were sacred places and for the People of God the mount in Jerusalem was most sacred and they did not like the pagan ideas of their oppressor who had found an ambitious project in the re-building of ‘the Temple’, which was almost certainly an attempt to gain popularity among his subjects who, he knew, held him in contempt and also to make amends for his cruelty toward the rabbis.

Build walls around the Temple Mount

It took 10,000 men ten years just to build the retaining walls around the Temple Mount (on top of which the Muslim shrine, the Dome of the Rock, stands today). The Western Wall (formerly known as the Wailing Wall or “Kotel Ma’arabi”) is merely part of that 500-meter-long retaining wall that was designed to hold a huge man-made platform that could accommodate twenty four football fields. When it was completed, it was the world’s largest functioning religious site and until today it remains the largest man-made platform in the world.

‘Foresight is the essence of government’, he must have thought and forward looking to a growing Jewish community of which there were already about 6-7 million Jews living in the Roman Empire (plus another 1 million in Persia), they should have felt welcome in the town they had to visit in their lifetime. Because it was considered to go for pilgrimage to  Jerusalem for the three pilgrimage festivals: Passover, Shavuot and Sukkot.  (Exodus 23: 17; Deuteronomy 16:16). The Mishnah says,

“All are under obligation, to appear, except minors, women, the blind, the lame, the aged, and one who is ill physically or mentally.”

Also knowing that according to the Mosaic law every one should take an offering, though the value thereof is not fixed (comp. Exodus 23: 14; Deuteronomium 16:17) this would mean they had to buy goods in the city and could bring in money for the Roman Empire by the taxes. They were sure of collecting at least the tax for a fixed minimum of three silver pieces, each of thirty-two grains of fine silver (Ḥagai 1:1-2). While the appearance of women and infant males was not obligatory, they usually accompanied their husbands and fathers, as in all public gatherings (Deuteronomy 31:12), which would mean lodging and food for them to be provided. The Talmud plainly infers that both daughters and sons joined the pilgrims at the Passover festival in Jerusalem (Pes. 89a; Giṭ. 25a).

Herod understood that in case the Jews could find a nice place where they could come together to celebrate their festivals, they also would spend a lot of money over there, which would be good for the tax-income. To accommodate such a huge number of people there was a need for a huge space. Hence the size of the platform.

Several Jews where also astonished what the emperor could establish and in the Talmud it was notated:

“He who has not seen Herod’s building, has never in his life seen a truly grand building.” (Talmud-Bava Basra 4a)

In Judea the pilgrimages to Jerusalem were kept up regularly, but the principal gathering of the people was on the Sukkot festival, called “Ḥag ha-Asif” = “Festival of Gathering” (1 Kings 8:65; 2 Chronicles 7:8, 9). The people went undisturbed to Jerusalem for the festivals (Yer. Ta’an. iv. 7; Giṭ. 88a). From beyond Palestine, especially from the River Euphrates, they journeyed to Jerusalem for the festivals. Some even endangered their lives passing the guards posted to stop the pilgrimages (Ta’an. 28a; Grätz, “Gesch.” 3d ed., iii. 157, 668). The number of Jewish pilgrims to the Temple was computed by the governor Gesius Florus (64-66), who counted 256,500 paschal lambs at one Passover festival; allowing ten persons to one lamb, this would make 2,565,000 pilgrims (Josephus, “B. J.” vi. 9). The Tosefta records the census of Agrippa, who ordered the priests to take one hind leg of every paschal lamb, and counted 1,200,000 legs, which would make the total 12,000,000, (Tosef., Pes. iv. 64b). {These figures are evidently exaggerated, and are based on the desire to double the 600,000 of the Exodus, a tendency frequently noticed in the Haggadah.}  It is calculated that ancient Jerusalem comprised an area of 2,400,000 square yards, and, allowing 10 yards for each person, would contain 240,000 persons {see Luncz, “Jerusalem,” i, English part, pp. 83-102}. {Jewish Encyclopedia}

Temple servants also servants of the emperor

Having built the Temple, Herod took pains to make sure it would be run without future problems of this kind. He appointed his own High Priest, having by then put to death forty-six leading members of the Sanhedrin, the rabbinical court.

In that Holy of Holies which was covered in gold there was such a priest assigned service in the regiment of Abijah. His name was Z’kharyah or Zachariah who had a wife who descended from the daughters of Aaron. Her name was Elizabeth. Together they lived honourably before God, careful in keeping to the ways of the commandments and enjoying a clear conscience before God Who is One. He was a respected priest who could use his words to enlighten many people.
In the other buildings were the walls and columns were of white marble; the floors were of carrara marble, its blue tinge giving the impression of a moving sea of water, the congregation gathered and waited for Zachariah who did not seem to come at his regular time. They waited and waited  and became restless. what they did not know was what happened in the house, where the curtains were tapestries of blue, white, scarlet and purple thread, depicting, according to Josephus, “the whole vista of the heavens.” those heavens seemed to have opened for the priest who was astonished and did not believe his eyes and ears.

A special messenger to a priest

Unannounced, an angel of God had appeared just to the right of the altar of incense and got the priest Zachariah paralyzed in fear. But the angel reassured him not to fear because this messenger of God came to tell that their prayer to receive a child was been heard and would be answered positively.  Elisheva (Elizabeth), his wife, who also observed all the mitzvot and ordinances, but did not seemed to be blessed to have children, would bear a son by him. Both where were quite old and had passed the age of having children so Zachariah did not believe the angel Gabriel, the sentinel of God, sent especially to bring him this glad news.
As priest before God, now not believing the messenger of God, he was punished and became unable to say a word until the day of his son’s birth. He would not be able to say any word until he would be filled with the Ruach haKodesh (the Holy Spirit) when the baby would leave his mother’s womb and would get people to  rejoice when he was born, having to face the one who  was going to turn many sons and daughters of Israel back to their God Adonai Elohim Hashem Jehovah. That son of those old people would herald and go before his face in the spirit and power of Eliyahu (Elijah), to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to walk in the wisdom of the just; to make ready for the Most High a people prepared for him.

Dumb, and not able to speak, until the day that these things were performed, because he did not believe the words, which were fulfilled in their season, he went out the  sanctuary, to the waiting people, who marvelled while he tarried in the temple and saw at his face and how he behaved that something special had happened. They knew he had seen a vision. He continued speechless and had to use sign language with the people. When the course of his priestly assignment was completed, he went back home. It wasn’t long before his wife, Elizabeth, conceived. She went off by herself for five months, relishing her pregnancy.

Luke’s story of the temple priest

The physician Luke (Colossians 4:14) has generally been credited with the writership of the following account:

“5  In the time of Herod king of Judea there was a priest named Zechariah, who belonged to the priestly division of Abijah; his wife Elizabeth was also a descendant of Aaron. 6 Both of them were upright in the sight of God, observing all the Lord’s commandments and regulations blamelessly. 7 But they had no children, because Elizabeth was barren; and they were both well on in years. 8 Once when Zechariah’s division was on duty and he was serving as priest before God, 9 he was chosen by lot, according to the custom of the priesthood, to go into the temple of the Lord and burn incense. 10 And when the time for the burning of incense came, all the assembled worshippers were praying outside. 11 Then an angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing at the right side of the altar of incense. 12 When Zechariah saw him, he was startled and was gripped with fear. 13 But the angel said to him: “Do not be afraid, Zechariah; your prayer has been heard. Your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you are to give him the name John. 14 He will be a joy and delight to you, and many will rejoice because of his birth, 15 for he will be great in the sight of the Lord. He is never to take wine or other fermented drink, and he will be filled with the Holy Spirit even from birth. 16 Many of the people of Israel will he bring back to the Lord their God. 17 And he will go on before the Lord, in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to their children and the disobedient to the wisdom of the righteous—to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.” 18 Zechariah asked the angel, “How can I be sure of this? I am an old man and my wife is well on in years.” 19 The angel answered, “I am Gabriel. I stand in the presence of God, and I have been sent to speak to you and to tell you this good news. 20 And now you will be silent and not able to speak until the day this happens, because you did not believe my words, which will come true at their proper time.” 21 Meanwhile, the people were waiting for Zechariah and wondering why he stayed so long in the temple. 22 When he came out, he could not speak to them. They realised he had seen a vision in the temple, for he kept making signs to them but remained unable to speak. 23 When his time of service was completed, he returned home. 24 After this his wife Elizabeth became pregnant and for five months remained in seclusion. 25 “The Lord has done this for me,” she said. “In these days he has shown his favour and taken away my disgrace among the people.”  (Luke 1:5-25 NIV)

Elisabeth’s other family member also receiving honour of being with child

Eastern Christianity fresco of the Visitation in St. George Church in Kurbinovo, Macedonia

In the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy by which God had taken away away her reproach among men or her  public disgrace, God sent the angel Gabriel to the Galilean village of  Natzeret/Nazareth to an Essene young girl, a virgin engaged to be married to a man descended from David. His name was Joseph, and the virgin’s name, Miryam/Miriam (the same name as the granddaughter of Hyrcanus, the Hasmonean princess). Miriam is today better known as Mary (Maria), the mother of Christ (and by many also called the mother of God, though God did not have a mother and has been for ever, so did not have a beginning as eternal Spirit).  Mary or Miryam/Miriam became pregnant with the Messiah and lost her virginity at the exact same time (her first time), thus confirming the Messiah’s physical birth (a physical to Spiritual parallel) as a First Born Son (physical for Mary and Joseph, but Spiritual for Jehovah), and legal heir to the throne of King David. This was a serious situation for the young girl, because in the East, the betrothal or engagement was entered into with much ceremony, and usually took place a year before the marriage and was so sacred that the parties entering into it could not be separated save by a bill of divorcement, which could be called in when somebody seemed to have been unfaithful. Unfaithfulness to each other was deemed adultery and could result in stoning to death.

26  In the sixth month, God sent the angel Gabriel to Nazareth, a town in Galilee, 27 to a virgin pledged to be married to a man named Joseph, a descendant of David. The virgin’s name was Mary. 28 The angel went to her and said, “Greetings, you who are highly favoured! The Lord is with you.” 29 Mary was greatly troubled at his words and wondered what kind of greeting this might be. 30 But the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, you have found favour with God.” (Luke 1:26-30 NIV)

Shame over the family

Joseph or Yosef, her husband, being a righteous man,chagrined but noble, determined to take care of things quietly so Mary would not be disgraced, not willing to make her a public example, intended to put her away secretly. But when he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Most High appeared to him in a dream, saying,

“Joseph, son of David, don’t be afraid to take to yourself Mary, your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. She shall bring forth a son. You shall call his name Jesus, for it is he who shall save his people from their sins.” (Matthew 1:20-21)

Not interested in Judean politics

At the time that Jewish nationalistic feelings were rising to the surface and Hellenism dominated Judea, the devote Miriam (Mary) was not interested in politics and the significant number of Greeks as well as other gentiles who adopted the Greek lifestyle who came to settle the land. As a result of Herod’s interference and the ever-spreading Hellenistic influences among the Jewish upper classes, the Temple hierarchy had become very corrupt, but her family always stayed truthful to her God, who was the God of Abraham and which she considered the Only One God, the Divine Creator. But perhaps she also might have looked forward to a solution and to their promised land and have sang:

“Maran de-bashamaya,” “Our Master in heaven, to Thee we beg, even like a captive to his master. All captives are ransomed with money; but Thy people Israel, with mercy and supplication. O grant us our request and prayer, and let us not return from Thy presence in vain.”

The Sadducees, a religious group of the wealthy, who collaborated with the Romans in order to keep their power base, now had come in control of the Temple, much to the chagrin of the mainstream Jewish majority, the Pharisees, and of the extreme religious minority, the Zealots.

Dating “Before and after Christ”

HerodtheGreat2.jpg

Basileus or King, emperor Herod the Great

Evidence for the 4 BCE date as the death of Herod in Jericho, is provided by the fact that Herod’s sons, between whom his kingdom was divided, dated their rule from 4 BCE, and Josephus tells us that Herod died after a lunar eclipse.  {Josephus, Antiquities, 17.6.4} Elisabeth and Mary having become pregnant before his death, should then also have been delivered their child before the so called Anno Domini (AD or A.D.) used to label or number years used with the Julian and Gregorian calendars.That Medieval Latin term specified more fully as Anno Domini Nostri Iesu (Jesu) Christi (“In the Year of Our Lord Jesus Christ”) was long wrongly taken as the year of birth of Christ Jesus. This Gregorian calendar dating system was devised in 525, but was not widely used until after 800, when the Trinitarians got in the majority of those who still kept to the teachings in which Miriam (Mary) strongly believed. Because BC is the English abbreviation for Before Christ, it is sometimes incorrectly concluded that AD means After Death, i.e., after the death of Jesus. However this would mean that the ~33 years commonly associated with the life of Jesus would not be present in either BC or AD time scales. {Donald P. Ryan, (2000), 15.} Others use it as “Anno Domine” “Year of the Lord” meaning Year of God an having the years BC ‘before Christ’ as the years ‘Before God’ of the “years before God his birth”, which would naturally be impossible, having God being the creator when he would not yet have been born or been in existence.

From told before

Palestine after Herod's deathIsrael had not yet seen realized the long-awaited fulfilment of the promise regarding the Seed through whom blessings would flow. (Ge 22:15-18) Israel had tried to create their won country and to liberate themselves many times from several oppressors. But their own efforts at salvation had produced nothing, unreality. They did not yet form a political nation where there could be found freedom “from enslavement to corruption” and peace for which all creation “keeps on groaning together and being in pain together.” (Romans 8:19-22; compare 10:3; 11:7.) Jehovah, their God had made Jerusalem like a woman who had been made pregnant by her husband and who brought forth numerous children. (Isaiah 54:1-8). After several prophets telling about a saviour to come the time seemed to be ripe.

Later the devout Jew and convert to the new faith, the apostle Paul quoted this prophecy of Isaiah chapter 54 and applied it to “the Jerusalem above [which] is free, and she is our mother.” (Galatians 4:26, 27)

At the end of the current time indication the stars and the moon came to stand in a situation which was predicted by the earlier prophets. Some wise men knew those predictions of a great king and noticed the signs which were predicted in many books. some started traveling and following the stars to find the right place where that king would come to earth.

They did not know that out of that simple devout woman from Nazareth would arise such a great prophet. The apostle John his vision recorded at Revelation 12:1-5 brings the pregnant heavenly “woman” to the forefront. In his revelation we can see that there is given birth to “a son, a male, who is to shepherd all the nations with an iron rod.” The shepherding of the nations with an iron rod is directly connected with the Messianic Kingdom of God, and hence the vision must relate to the producing of that Kingdom, so that, following the defeat of Satan’s attack on the newborn “child,” the ensuing cry goes forth:

“Now have come to pass the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God and the authority of his Christ.” (Revelation of the apostle John 12:10)

The anguish of the pregnant heavenly “woman” preceding the birth calls to mind Paul’s expression at Galatians 4:19, “childbirth pains” there apparently representing stirring interest and fervent desire to see full development of matters reached (in Paul’s case, the full development of the Galatian believers as Christians).

  • Lectionary sermon for 15 December 2013 (Advent 3 A) on Matthew 11:2-11 (billpeddie.wordpress.com)
    John’s undoing in this instance was that he believed Herod Antipas the Tetrarch had done something quite immoral, and despite knowing Herod Antipas’ unpleasant reputation, told him so. Herod Antipas had been named as king by Caesar Augustus on the death of his father King Herod the Great, but the Romans had decided his power should be limited and only gave him a quarter share of his father’s territory. He set about trying to win back more power by building the city of Tiberius in honour of his current patron the Emperor Tiberius. The immoral action which had offended John was that Antipas also fancied his brother’s wife, Herodias, so he divorced his own wife and married Herodias. Well it is one thing to believe the king had done wrong, but telling him so was quite another. It is understatement to say upsetting a ruthless king from a ruthless family by calling him immoral was not a wise career move and it was probably no surprise to anyone that John was now imprisoned, and, according to the historian Josephus, in the forbidding fortress Machaerus.
  • Tiberius (14-37) (mkukahiwaharuno.wordpress.com)
    During this time, Augustus’ death in 14 had then caused Tiberius to become ruler.  However, at the time of Augustus’ death, he had hesitated to take over as ruler because he felt as if he was inadequate for the position.  He had even gone as far as telling the senate that he was reluctant and inadequate to fill this role.  He was then appointed control of the Praetorian Guard.  The authority in which Tiberius had during this time since he was Augustus’ heir was also greatly and positively impacted because of his tribunician power, the fact Augustus adopted him and Augustus’ bequest to him of his estate along with one of the most important components, his name… Augustus.  However, Rome’s armies had saw the death of Augustus in a different aspect which was it simply being their way to possibly obtain munity.
  • Sorting out the Agrippinas (timesonline.typepad.com)
    One of the problems of the first century AD is that there are simply too many Agrippinas. Not only the “Elder Agrippina” (the wife of the glamorous prince Germanicus, who kept his memory alive after his suspicious death and was morally upright to the point of being a bit of a pain in the neck) and the “Younger Agrippina” (daughter of the Elder A, wife of Claudius and mother — and lover it was said — of Nero). There’s also the virtuous lady that we tend to know as Vipsania, who was the first wife of the emperor Tiberius….the one he really loved but was made to divorce in order to marry the dreadful Julia. Vipsania was actually “Vipsania Agrippina”, the daughter of Augustus’ aide, Agrippa.This last Agrippina is often missed. In fact the traditional title of the picture, below right (by Rubens, now in the National Gallery in Washington) was “Tiberius and Agrippina”… but has been changed to A0000e45“Germanicus and Agrippina”, partly because the traditional pairing seemed so odd (the Elder Agrippina hated Tiberius, whom she believed was heavily implicated in the death of Germanicus). But actually it’s a pairing that makes perfect sense if you remember it could be what we would call “Tiberius and Vipsania”. This is the sad loving couple who were forced to divorce by the imperial dynastic machine.
  • The Story of Mary and the Birth of the King (womenfromthebook.com)
    or over 500 years the nation of Israel chafed under the thumb of first one Gentile kingdom and then another—Babylon, Persia, the Greco Macedonians, and now Rome, with its absolute ruler Caesar Augustus, and Herod the Great, one of his ruthless client kings. It wasn’t unusual, particularly during Passover season, for passions to ignite as the tribes of Israel revisited the story of God’s intervention and the stunning liberation of their ancestors.  When the white-hot flames of resistance and rebellion flared, they were summarily stamped out under the cruel boot of Herod’s soldiers.Exorbitant taxation compounded the misery of oppression in pre- and first-century Palestine: the mandatory tribute to Rome; locally imposed taxes; several layers of temple tax; impromptu levies to fund military expeditions and building projects. Privation and hardship enveloped the land like a dank, smothering blanket, and peasants found themselves forced to sell their land holdings—inheritances from generations past—in order to survive. The swelling ranks of day laborers told the tale.
    +
    On a cool autumn morning sometime before Herod’s death, in the frontier town of Nazareth in Lower Galilee, a young woman prepared for a long trip to Bethlehem. Caesar Augustus called for a census, declaring “all the world should be taxed” (Luke 2:1-5) and ordered that everyone[1] must register in their ancestral home. And so, Mary, nearly full-term in her pregnancy, helped Joseph load the cart with the necessities they would need to see them through their journey to the ancient city of David.
  • Signs and Wonders (mnorth52.wordpress.com)
    Astrology boomed under the Caesars: here we had a severely autocratic regime which considered it worthwhile to be seen as “one with the gods”, and so it greatly benefited the emperors to have the legitimacy of their sovereignty literally “written in the stars.”Tiberius was no exception: having become self proficient in divination, after a dream which told him to give a large sum of money to a certain person, he decided he was the victim of enchantment, and had the man put to death. So even if you have no connection with someone (even an emperor), you could find your life terminated simply on the arbitrary say-so of interpretation of dreams. Freud no doubt would have been in his heaven among the Romans.
  • Rome’s Religion (ecpsocialstudies6.wordpress.com)
    Honoring gods was a big part of Roman life. There were thousands of Roman gods. The ancient Romans believed gods lived everywhere—in trees, by the side of the road, in a flower, under the bed, and maybe even in the oven in your house.  In ancient Rome, everything had a spirit in charge of it.
  • Tiberius Used Quantitative Easing To Solve The Financial Crisis Of 33 AD (businessinsider.com)
    Tiberius ruled the Roman Empire from 14 AD to 37 AD.  He was frugal in his expenditures, and consequently, he never raised taxes during his reign. When Cappadocia became a province, Tiberius was even able to lower Roman taxes. His frugality also allowed him to be liberal in helping the provinces when, for example, a massive earthquake destroyed many of the famous cities of Asia, or when a financial panic struck the Roman Empire in 33 AD.As with many financial panics, this one began when unexpected events in one part of the Roman world spread to the rest of the Empire. To quote Otto Lightner from his History of Business Depressions, “The important firm of Seuthes and Son, of Alexandria, was facing difficulties because of the loss of three richly laden ships in a Red Sea storm, followed by a fall in the value of ostrich feather and ivory. About the same time the great house of Malchus and Co. of Tyre with branches at Antioch and Ephesus, suddenly became bankrupt as a result of a strike among their Phoenician workmen and the embezzlements of a freedman manager. These failures affected the Roman banking house, Quintus Maximus and Lucious Vibo. A run commenced on their bank and spread to other banking houses that were said to be involved, particularly Brothers Pittius.
  • Bishop MacEvilly’s Commentary on Matthew 22:15-21 (thedivinelamp.wordpress.com)
    Pharisees are in a special manner said to be the instigators or concocters of this scheme, to insnare our Redeemer, both, because they were most hostile to Him, and among them, especially the following captious question was agitated. Instead of being struck with feelings of dread at the punishment menaced by our Redeemer, and conceiving feelings of true sorrow, they become more hardened in their iniquity, and endeavour to insnare Him.
  • The man behind the emperor: major Augustus exhibit opens in Rome (rawstory.com)
    A political genius, a great reformer, a patron of the arts — but ancient Rome’s first emperor Augustus was also a family man, as highlighted in a new exhibition that opened in Rome this week.The show marks 2,000 years since the death of the founder of the Roman Empire and the man most associated with the “Pax Romana”, a period of immense architectural and artistic achievement.“We wanted to look at the personality of Augustus beyond the official persona,” said Daniel Roger, chief conservator at the Louvre museum in Paris, which is co-organising the exhibition in Rome.

    Through some 200 items including statues, jewelry and platters, the exhibition at the Scuderie del Quirinale delves into the emperor’s family life and tries to depict the ebullient mood of the time.

    The show brings together for the first time statues of Augustus in his attire as a divine leader and as a star general, as well as an equestrian one found in the Aegean Sea in Greece and displayed in Italy for the first time.

  • Augustus (aaam4e.wordpress.com)
    Augustus got very sick in 23 BC he died visiting his fathers grave on August 19 14 AD

Jezus vindt de dood op Golgota op voorbereidingsdag

File:Doek calv-restauratie.jpg

Aan de voet van de paal waarop Jezus zijn dood vond – Doek uit eigen privé-collectie, Carolus

“De Joden antwoordden hem: Wij hebben een wet en naar die wet moet Hij sterven, want Hij heeft Zichzelf Gods Zoon gemaakt.” (Johannes 19:7 NBG51)

“Want alzo lief heeft God de wereld gehad, dat Hij zijn eniggeboren Zoon gegeven heeft, opdat een ieder, die in Hem gelooft, niet verloren ga, maar eeuwig leven hebbe.” (Johannes 3:16 NBG51)

“En zie, een stem uit de hemelen zeide: Deze is mijn Zoon, de geliefde, in wie Ik mijn welbehagen heb.” (Mattheüs 3:17 NBG51)

“17 en Hij, zelf zijn kruis dragende, ging naar de zogenaamde Schedelplaats, in het Hebreeuws genaamd Golgota, 18 waar zij Hem kruisigden en met Hem twee anderen, aan weerszijden een, en Jezus in het midden.
19  En Pilatus liet ook een opschrift schrijven en op het kruis plaatsen; er was geschreven: Jezus, de Nazoreeer, de Koning der Joden.  20 Dit opschrift dan lazen vele der Joden, want de plaats, waar Jezus gekruisigd werd, was dicht bij de stad, en het was geschreven in het Hebreeuws, in het Latijn en in het Grieks. 21 De overpriesters der Joden dan zeiden tot Pilatus: Schrijf niet: De Koning der Joden, maar dat Hij gezegd heeft: Ik ben de Koning der Joden. 22 Pilatus antwoordde: Wat ik geschreven heb, dat heb ik geschreven.” (Johannes 19:17-22 NBG51)

“23 Toen dan de soldaten Jezus gekruisigd hadden, namen zij zijn klederen en maakten daarvan vier delen, voor iedere soldaat een deel, en zijn onderkleed. Dit kleed nu was zonder naad, aan een stuk geweven.  24 Zij zeiden dan tot elkander: Laten wij dit niet scheuren, maar erom loten, voor wie het zijn zal; zodat het schriftwoord vervuld werd: Zij hebben mijn klederen onder elkander verdeeld en over mijn kleding hebben zij het lot geworpen. Dit hebben dan de soldaten gedaan. ” (Johannes 19:23-24 NBG51)

“Zij verdelen mijn klederen onder elkander en werpen het lot over mijn gewaad.” (Psalmen 22:18 NBG51)

“En zij kruisigden Hem en verdeelden zijn klederen door het lot te werpen, wat ieder ervan krijgen zou. {} {}” (Markus 15:24 NBG51)

“28 Hierna zeide Jezus, daar Hij wist, dat alles reeds volbracht was, opdat de Schrift vervuld zou worden: Mij dorst! 29 Er stond een kruik vol zure wijn; zij staken dan een spons, gedrenkt met zure wijn, op een hysopstengel en brachten die aan zijn mond.  30 Toen Jezus dan de zure wijn genomen had, zeide Hij: Het is volbracht! En Hij boog het hoofd en gaf de geest.” (Johannes 19:28-30 NBG51)

“En Jezus riep met luider stem: Vader, in uw handen beveel Ik mijn geest. En toen Hij dat gezegd had, gaf Hij de geest.” (Lukas 23:46 NBG51)

“1  Want daar de wet slechts een schaduw heeft der toekomstige goederen, niet de gestalte dier dingen zelf, is zij nimmer in staat ieder jaar met dezelfde offeranden, die onafgebroken gebracht worden, degenen, die toetreden, te volmaken. 2 Immers, zou anders het offeren daarvan niet opgehouden zijn, doordat degenen, die de dienst verrichten, na eenmaal gereinigd te zijn, generlei besef van zonden meer hadden? 3 Doch door die offeranden werden ieder jaar de zonden in gedachtenis gebracht; 4 want het is onmogelijk, dat het bloed van stieren of bokken zonden zou wegnemen. 5 Daarom zegt Hij bij zijn komst in de wereld: Slachtoffer en offergave hebt Gij niet gewild, maar Gij hebt Mij een lichaam bereid; 6 in brandoffers en zondoffers hebt Gij geen welbehagen gehad.
7  Toen zeide Ik: zie, hier ben Ik (in de boekrol staat van Mij geschreven) om uw wil, o God, te doen. 8 In de aanhef zegt Hij: Slachtoffers en offergaven, brandoffers en zondoffers, hebt Gij niet gewild, noch daarin een welbehagen gehad, hoewel zij naar de wet gebracht worden. 9 [Doch] daarna heeft Hij gezegd: Zie, hier ben Ik om uw wil te doen. Hij heft het eerste op, om het tweede te laten gelden. 10 Krachtens die wil zijn wij eens voor altijd geheiligd door het offer van het lichaam van Jezus Christus. 11 Voorts staat elke priester dagelijks in zijn dienst om telkens dezelfde offers te brengen, die nimmer de zonden kunnen wegnemen; 12 deze echter is, na een offer voor de zonden te hebben gebracht, voor altijd gezeten aan de rechterhand van God, 13 voorts afwachtende, totdat zijn vijanden gemaakt worden tot een voetbank voor zijn voeten. 14 Want door een offerande heeft Hij voor altijd hen volmaakt, die geheiligd worden.” (Hebreeën 10:1-14 NBG51)

“31  De Joden dan, daar het Voorbereiding was en de lichamen niet op sabbat aan het kruis mochten blijven (want de dag van die sabbat was groot) vroegen Pilatus, dat hun benen gebroken en zij weggenomen zouden worden. 32 De soldaten dan kwamen en braken de benen van de eerste en van de andere, die met Hem gekruisigd waren;  33 maar toen zij bij Jezus gekomen waren en zagen, dat Hij reeds gestorven was, braken zij zijn benen niet, 34 maar een van de soldaten stak met een speer in zijn zijde en terstond kwam er bloed en water uit. 35 En die het gezien heeft, heeft ervan getuigd en zijn getuigenis is waarachtig en hij weet, dat hij de waarheid spreekt, opdat ook gij gelooft.” (Johannes 19:31-35 NBG51)

“4 Ik heb U verheerlijkt op de aarde door het werk te voleindigen, dat Gij Mij te doen gegeven hebt. 5 En nu, verheerlijk Gij Mij, Vader, bij Uzelf met de heerlijkheid, die Ik bij U had, eer de wereld was.
6  Ik heb uw naam geopenbaard aan de mensen, die Gij Mij uit de wereld gegeven hebt. Zij behoorden U toe en Gij hebt hen Mij gegeven en zij hebben uw woord bewaard. 7 Nu weten zij, dat al wat Gij Mij gegeven hebt, van U komt, 8 want de woorden, die Gij Mij gegeven hebt, heb Ik hun gegeven en zij hebben ze aangenomen en in waarheid erkend, dat Ik van U ben uitgegaan, en zij hebben geloofd, dat Gij Mij gezonden hebt.” (Johannes 17:4-8 NBG51)

“In een huis zal het gegeten worden; gij zult van het vlees niets uit het huis naar buiten brengen; geen been zult gij ervan breken.” (Exodus 12:46 NBG51)

“12 Men zal niets ervan laten overblijven tot de volgende morgen, en geen been eraan breken; geheel volgens de inzetting van het Pascha zal men het vieren. 13 Maar de man, die rein is, en niet op reis, en nalaat het Pascha te vieren, die zal uitgeroeid worden uit zijn volksgenoten, omdat hij op de daarvoor bepaalde tijd de offergave des HEREN niet heeft gebracht; die man zal zijn zonde dragen.” (Numeri 9:12-13 NBG51)

“17 Roepen zij, dan hoort de HERE, en Hij redt hen uit al hun benauwdheden. 18 De HERE is nabij de gebrokenen van harten Hij verlost de verslagenen van geest. 19 Talrijk zijn de rampen van de rechtvaardige, maar uit die alle redt hem de HERE; 20 Hij behoedt al zijn beenderen, niet een daarvan wordt gebroken.” (Psalmen 34:17-20 NBG51)

“36 Want dit is geschied, opdat het schriftwoord zou vervuld worden: Geen been van Hem zal verbrijzeld worden. 37 En weder zegt een ander schriftwoord: Zij zullen zien op Hem, die zij doorstoken hebben.
38  En daarna vroeg Jozef van Arimatea, een discipel van Jezus, maar in het verborgen uit vrees voor de Joden, aan Pilatus het lichaam van Jezus te mogen wegnemen; en Pilatus stond het toe. Hij kwam dan en nam zijn lichaam weg. ” (Johannes 19:36-38 NBG51)

“Ik zal over het huis van David en over de inwoners van Jeruzalem uitgieten de Geest der genade en der gebeden; zij zullen hem aanschouwen, die zij doorstoken hebben, en over hem een rouwklacht aanheffen als de rouwklacht over een enig kind, ja, zij zullen over hem bitter leed dragen als het leed om een eerstgeborene.” (Zacharia 12:10 NBG51)

“Zie, Hij komt met de wolken en elk oog zal Hem zien, ook zij, die Hem hebben doorstoken; en alle stammen der aarde zullen over Hem weeklagen. Ja, amen.” (Openbaring 1:7 NBG51)

“45 En van het zesde uur af kwam er duisternis over het gehele land tot het negende uur. 46 Omstreeks het negende uur riep Jezus met luider stem, zeggende: Eli, Eli, lama sabachtani? Dat is: Mijn God, mijn God, waarom hebt Gij Mij verlaten? 47 En sommige van de omstanders, dit horende, zeiden: Hij roept Elia. 48 En terstond liep een van hen toe en nam een spons, drenkte die met zure wijn, stak ze op een riet en gaf Hem te drinken. 49 Maar de anderen zeiden: Stil, laat ons zien, of Elia komt om Hem te redden.
50  Jezus riep wederom met luider stem en gaf de geest. 51 En zie, het voorhangsel van de tempel scheurde van boven tot beneden in tweeen, en de aarde beefde, en de rotsen scheurden, 52 en de graven gingen open en vele lichamen der ontslapen heiligen werden opgewekt.  53 En zij gingen uit de graven na zijn opstanding en kwamen in de heilige stad waar zij aan velen verschenen. 54 De hoofdman en zij, die met hem Jezus bewaakten, zagen de aardbeving en wat er plaats had en zij werden zeer bevreesd en zeiden: Waarlijk dit was een Zoon Gods.” (Mattheüs 27:45-54 NBG51)

“38  En daarna vroeg Jozef van Arimatea, een discipel van Jezus, maar in het verborgen uit vrees voor de Joden, aan Pilatus het lichaam van Jezus te mogen wegnemen; en Pilatus stond het toe. Hij kwam dan en nam zijn lichaam weg.  39 En ook kwam Nikodemus, die de eerste maal des nachts tot Hem gekomen was, en hij bracht een mengsel mede van mirre en aloe, ongeveer honderd pond. 40 Zij namen dan het lichaam van Jezus en wikkelden het in linnen windsels met de specerijen, zoals het bij de Joden gebruikelijk is te begraven. 41 En er was ter plaatse, waar Hij gekruisigd was, een hof en in die hof een nieuw graf, waarin nog nooit iemand was bijgezet; 42 daar dan legden zij Jezus neder wegens de Voorbereiding der Joden, omdat het graf dichtbij was.” (Johannes 19:38-42 NBG51)

“De volgende dag, dat is na de Voorbereiding, kwamen de overpriesters en de Farizeeen gezamenlijk tot Pilatus, ” (Mattheüs 27:62 NBG51)

“En toen het reeds avond geworden was, (15-43a) kwam(15-42b) omdat het Voorbereiding, dat is de voorsabbat, was,” (Markus 15:42 NBG51)

“50  En zie, een man, genaamd Jozef, die raadsheer was, een goed en rechtvaardig man 51 (deze had niet ingestemd met hun raad en bedrijf), van Arimatea, een stad der Joden, die het Koninkrijk Gods verwachtte, 52 deze ging naar Pilatus en vroeg hem om het lichaam van Jezus. 53 En na het te hebben afgenomen, wikkelde hij het in linnen en legde Hem in een rotsgraf, waarin nog nooit iemand gelegd was. 54 En het was de dag der voorbereiding en de sabbat brak aan. 55 En de vrouwen, die met Hem uit Galilea gekomen waren, volgden en zij bezagen het graf en hoe zijn lichaam gelegd werd; 56 en toen zij teruggekeerd waren, maakten zij specerijen en mirre gereed. En op de sabbat rustten zij naar het gebod,” (Lukas 23:50-56 NBG51)

“Bedenkt, dat de HERE u de sabbat gegeven heeft; daarom geeft Hij u op de zesde dag brood voor twee dagen. Ieder moet op zijn plaats blijven; niemand mag zijn plaats op de zevende dag verlaten. ” (Exodus 16:29 NBG51)

“Gedenk de sabbatdag, dat gij die heiligt;” (Exodus 20:8 NBG51)

“Onderhoud de sabbatdag, dat gij die heiligt, zoals de HERE, uw God, u geboden heeft.” (Deuteronomium 5:12 NBG51)

*

Vorige hoofdstukken rond de dood van Christus:

Gevangenneming en terechtstelling van Christus Jezus

Voor de Wil van Hem die groter is dan Jezus

Op de eerste dag voor matzah

Dienstknecht voor velen terwille van de waarheid van God

De Gezalfde en de eerste dag van de feestperiode van Ongezuurde Broden

In andere talen:

Duitstalig / Deutsch: Jesu Tod auf Golgatha am 14 Nisan

Franstalig / Version en Français: La Mort du Jésus Christ sur le Jour de Préparation

Engelstalig: Death of Christ on the day of preparation

+

English: Jews Celebrating Passover. Lubok, XIX...

Vindt ook:
Omtrent de laatste ogenblikken van Jezus zijn leven:
  1. Jesaja profeet en boodschapper van God
  2. Zalving van Christus als profetische repetitie van de begrafenisrituelen
  3. Dienaar van zijn Vader
  4. 14 Nisan, de avond om Christus Zijn predikingswerk te herinneren
  5. 14 Nisan een dag om te herinneren #1 Oorsprong
  6. 14 Nisan een dag om te herinneren #2 In Jezus tijd
  7. 14 Nisan een dag om te herinneren #3 Voor het Overgangsfeest
  8. 14 Nisan een dag om te herinneren #4 Een Gedood Lam
  9. 14 Nisan een dag om te herinneren #5 De te vieren dag
  10. Jezus aanbod op het laatste avondmaal
  11. Teken van het Verbond
  12. Verontrustheid van Jezus
  13. Jezus moest sterven
  14. Een Messias om te Sterven
  15. Een Feestmaal en doodsherinnering
  16. Een Groots Geschenk om te herinneren
  17. Jezus stervensdag
  18. Niet goddelijkheid van Christus toch
  19. De Afstraling van Gods Heerlijkheid
  20. Achtergelaten aan een paal tot in de dood
  21. Waarom vast houden aan het kruisbeeld
  22. Zweeds theoloog vindt in historische geschriften dat Jezus niet aan een kruis stierf
  23. Een gedicht voor Pasen
  24. Pasen 2006
  25. Niet gebonden door labels maar vrij in Christus

 ++

Ook aangeraden post / Recommended reading:
  1. Impaled until death overtook him
  2. Swedish theologian finds historical proof Jesus did not die on a cross
  3. Why 20 Nations Are Defending the Crucifix in Europe
  4. 14-15 Nisan and Easter
  5. High Holidays not only for Israel

+++

    • Shabbat of Love: Song of Songs (lazerbrody.typepad.com)
      This Shabbat is Shabbat Chol HaMoed Pesach, the interim Sabbath of Passover. In the south of Israel, the citrus trees are in full blossom.
    • Passover and Easter (dolunaylaben.wordpress.com)
      +The Origins of Easter
      But while Easter primarily serves as a day of remembrance and rejoicing over the Resurrection of Christ, many of the traditions and symbols of Easter are actually based on pagan traditions and symbols. Since Easter took place during the spring, it competed with pagan celebrations of the arrival of spring and renewal of life. In Europe and Asia, this time was dedicated to a goddess of fertility. While this goddess is believed to have been originally based on the Babylonian goddess Ishtar, she also has many counterparts in other mythologies. Interestingly enough, she is referred to in Saxon mythology as “Oestre” or “Eastre.” Many scholars consider this the origin of the name “Easter.” As for the Easter eggs and rabbits, these symbolize reproduction and were thought to invoke the fertility of spring. Even the painted eggs and egg-hunts originated from pagan ceremonies of various cultures, including the Babylonians.Pesach (Passover): History & Overview

      Pesach, or Passover in English, is one of the best known Jewish holidays, as much for its connection to Jewish redemption and the figure of Moses as for its ties with Christian history (the Last Supper was apparently a Passover seder).

      Passover begins on the 15th day of the Jewish month of Nissan. It is the first of the three major festivals with both historical and agricultural significance (the other two are Shavu’ot and Sukkot). Agriculturally, it represents the beginning of the harvest season in Israel. The primary observances of Passover are related to the Exodus from Egypt after 400 years of slavery as told in the biblical Book of Exodus from chapters 1 to 15.

      Passover lasts for seven days (eight days outside of Israel). The first and last days of the holiday (first two and last two outside of Israel) are days on which no work is permitted. Work is permitted on the intermediate days, referred to as Chol Ha-Mo’ed.

       

Passover Seder table with an Esperanto Haggada...

Passover Seder table with an Esperanto Haggadah of Pesach Esperanto: Seder-tablo dum Pesaĥo kun Hagada en Esperanto (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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