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Posts tagged ‘14 Nisan’

Those who Jesus can call friends

This weekend is a most important weekend, having Biblestudents all over the world remembering how Jesus had his last supper with his friends.

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You are the ones who have stuck with me in my trials.​—Luke 22:28.

Throughout Jesus’ challenging ministry, the faithful apostles proved to be real friends to Jesus. (Prov. 18:24) Jesus valued such friends. During his ministry, none of his fleshly brothers put faith in him. (John 7:3-5) At one point, his relatives even thought that he had gone mad. (Mark 3:21)

By contrast, Jesus could say the words of today’s text to the faithful apostles on the night before his death. The apostles occasionally disappointed Jesus, but he looked past their faults and saw that they had faith in him. (Matt. 26:40; Mark 10:13, 14; John 6:66-69)

On the last night with them before he was executed, Jesus said to these loyal men:

“I have called you friends, because I have made known to you all the things I have heard from my Father.” (John 15:15)

Without a doubt, Jesus’ friends were a great source of encouragement to him.

w19.04 11 ¶11-12

Zij die Jezus vrienden kan noemen

Dit weekend is een zeer belangrijk weekend, waarbij Biblestudenten over de hele wereld zich herinneren hoe Jezus zijn laatste avondmaal met zijn vrienden had.

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Jullie zijn degenen die tijdens mijn beproevingen steeds bij me zijn gebleven. — Luk. 22:28.

Toen Jezus op aarde was, waren de trouwe apostelen echte vrienden voor hem (Spr. 18:24). Jezus waardeerde zulke vrienden. Zijn broers geloofden tijdens zijn bediening niet in hem (Joh. 7:3-5). Op een gegeven moment dachten zijn familieleden zelfs dat hij gek was geworden (Mark. 3:21).

Maar tegen de trouwe apostelen kon Jezus de avond voor zijn dood zeggen wat in de tekst voor vandaag staat. Soms stelden de apostelen Jezus teleur, maar hij keek verder dan hun fouten en zag dat ze in hem geloofden (Matth. 26:40; Mark. 10:13, 14; Joh. 6:66-69).

Op zijn laatste avond met hen voordat hij werd terechtgesteld, zei hij tegen die trouwe mannen:

‘Ik noem jullie vrienden, want ik heb jullie alles verteld wat ik van mijn Vader heb gehoord’ (Joh. 15:15).

Jezus’ vrienden waren ongetwijfeld een grote steun voor hem.

w19.04 11 ¶11-12

Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #7 Matthew 26:26-30 – Keep Doing This in My Memory

Matthew 26:26-30 – Keep Doing This in My Memory

|| Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:17-20

MT26:26 But as they were eating[1] [the Passover meal], Jesus took some unleavened bread and having blessed it he broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying: “Take. Eat. This is my body.”[2] MT26:27 Next, Jesus took a cup and after giving thanks he gave it to his disciples, saying, “All of you drink. MT26:28 For this is my blood of the covenant[3] [Exodus 24:8] about to be poured out for the forgiveness of many sins.[4] MT26:29 But, I tell you: From now on I shall not drink from the vine until the day that I drink a new fruitage with you[5] in my Father’s Kingdom.”[6] MT26:30 And having sung [Hallel] hymns[7] they went out into the Mount of Olives.

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[1] As they were eating: By inspiration Paul clarifies at 1 Corinthians 11:25, “… after he had the evening meal.” Traditional they have eaten from a roasted lamb, bitter herbs, and unleavened bread. There were usually four cups of wine at certain moments in the celebration. The disciples would have life long experience that the lamb was emblematic of that deliverance out of Egypt 1,500 years before.

[2] This is my body: Or, MOF: it means my body. Luke 22:19 adds, “… which is to be given in your behalf.” 1 Corinthians 11:24 adds, “… which is in your behalf.” The Nazarene means his perfect human body is to become a redemptive sacrifice. On the body of Jesus compare Romans 7:4; 1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 11:24; Colossians 1:22; Hebrews 10:5,10; 1 Peter 2:24.

We note in Matthew’s account there is no indication of a command to continue this observance. However, note Luke 22:19, “Keep doing this in remembrance of me.” Paul states on the basis of inspiration or a personal message from the glorified Lord the same words of Luke with regard to both the loaf and the cup. Paul summarizes the reason for the observance: “For as often as you eat this loaf and drink this cup, you keep proclaiming the death of the Lord, until he arrives.” (1 Corinthians 11:26)

There are several opinions on how often the Memorial (Eucharist, Communion, Lord’s Supper) was to be observed. The historical evidence seems strong that for a very long time Christians observed Nisan 14 as the annual date for the commemoration. It is likely that as the Church wanted more control over the laity the Mass was celebrated more often until it became daily.

[3] This is my blood of the covenant: The KJV reads: “This is my blood of the new testament,” but other Greek texts omit this here though the phrase is in Luke. The phrase here is an allusion to Exodus 24:8 when the first, or “old” covenant was instituted with Israel. 1 Corinthians 11:25 has this, “This cup means the new covenant by virtue of my blood.” Research the phrase blood of the covenant and new covenant for related texts.

[4] About to be poured out for the forgiveness of many sins: Or, PME: to set many free from their sins. The next historical reference to the blood of Jesus is by Paul at Acts 20:26. Paul goes on to use blood in relation to Christ at Romans 3:25; Romans 5:9; 1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 11:25, 27; Ephesians 1:7; Ephesians 2:13; Colossians 1:20. Other books refer to the blood: Hebrews uses the word 23 times; 1 Peter 1:2, 19; 1 John 1:7; 1 John 5:6-8; Revelation 1:5; Revelation 5:9; Revelation 7:14; Revelation 12:11.

[5] Until the day that I drink a new fruitage with you: Or, RIEU: a new kind of wine with you in the Kingdom; BECK: drink it with you in a new way; LAM: drink it anew with you. He may be referring to the new yield from the vine a new and better vintage.

[6] My Father’s Kingdom: This is not the “kingdom of the heavens,” or, the Realm of Heaven, but the actual celestial government and realm of the Father. Compare notes on Matthew 13:43.

[7] Sung [Hallel] hymns: Traditionally the Hallel Psalms 112-118 were sung during and at the end of the Passover meal. These are interesting psalms to read within the context of Jesus’ life at this moment, particularly Psalm 118. During Memorial season these are good psalms on which to meditate. Or, NEB: after singing the Passover Hymn.

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Preceding

Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #1 Matthew 26:1-2 – Two Days Before Execution

Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #2 Matthew 26:3-5 – Plotting to Seize Jesus

Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #3 Matthew 26:6-13 – A Woman to Be Remembered

Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #4 Matthew 26:14-16 – The Price of Betrayal

Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #5 Matthew 26:17-19 – Passover Preparations

Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #6 Matthew 26:20-25 – The Last Passover

Glory of God appearing in our character

14 Nisan a day to remember #4 A Lamb slain

On the first day for matzah

For the Will of Him who is greater than Jesus

Most important weekend of the year 2016

Imprisonment and execution of Jesus Christ

The Most important weekend of the year 2018

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Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #5 Matthew 26:17-19 – Passover Preparations

Matthew 26:17-19 – Passover Preparations

|| Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-13

MT26:17 Now on the first day of the unfermented cakes[1] the disciples approached Jesus and asked, “Where do you wish to prepare to eat the Passover?” MT26:18 Jesus told them, “Go into the city and when you face So-and-so say to him,[2] ‘The Teacher says, “My time is near.[3] With you I am having the Passover[4] with my disciples.”’” MT26:19 And the disciples did just as Jesus directed them. They prepared the Passover.[5]

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[1] The first day of the unfermented cakes: There is no universal agreement on this phrase. The Greek PROTE may infer, “the day before,” meaning Nisan 13. Compare Exodus 12:18; Exodus 23:15. Mark 14:12 adds, “… when they customarily sacrificed the Passover.” (Luke 22:7) Nisan 14 would begin at sundown. The Jews had to clear all leaven out of their homes and prepare the sacrificial meal of lamb. In the case of the collection of manna it was to be done the day before Sabbath when they would get a double portion (Exodus 16:5, 22-27; Exodus 20:10). In time “the day before the sabbath” came to be termed “Preparation,” as Mark explained (Mark 15:42). “(The Jews) need not give bond (to appear in court) on the Sabbath or on the day of preparation for it (Sabbath Eve) after the ninth hour (3 PM).” The Jews thus began to prepare for the Sabbath on Friday afternoon, or on those occasions where a special Sabbath fell on another day, the afternoon before [Jewish Antiquities, XVI, 163 (vi, 2)]. Nisan 14 was also a Sabbath day no matter what day it fell on. Friday evening at sundown would begin a high holy day with a double Sabbath (John 19:31, 42; Mark 15:42, 43; Luke 23:54). There is disagreement on these dating of matters.

[2] When you face So-and-so say to him: Mark 14:13 adds, “… a man carrying an earthenware vessel of water will encounter,” something rare for men so easily identifiable (Luke 22:10). Or, NEB: go to a certain man in the city.

[3] My time is near: Or, NEB: my appointed time is near. How would Jesus know this? It is possible he could calculate the “middle of the week” of Daniel 9:25, 26 or three and a half years after the beginning of the Nazarene’s ministry which would have begun in the Fall of 29. This would be a period of 1,260 days or 42 months.

[4] With you I am having the Passover: Or, KJV: I will keep the Passover at thy house; RHM: with thee will I keep the Passover.

[5] They prepared the Passover: According to tradition this would begin late on Nisan 13 some hours before sundown and the beginning of Nisan 14. The first day of the eight-day Passover festival was also a Sabbath no matter the day of the week upon which it fell. This period was called “preparation” and would have occurred twice during this particular year. The disciples would have prepared a lamb, green herbs, unleavened bread, red wine for a dozen people. This was the average family size as the Passover was a family celebration.

Even among the Jews there is disagreement about the precise timing: some choosing Nisan 14 and others Nisan 15. “Different opinions have prevailed among the Jews from a very early date as to the precise time intended. Aben Ezra agrees with the Caraites and Samaritans in taking the first evening to be the time when the sun sinks below the horizon, and the second the time of total darkness; in which case, ‘between the two evenings’ would be from 6 o’clock to 7.20…. According to the rabbinical idea, the time when the sun began to descend, viz. from 3 to 5 o’clock, was the first evening, and sunset the second; so that ‘between the two evenings’ was from 3 to 6 o’clock. Modern expositors have very properly decided in favour of the view held by Aben Ezra and the custom adopted by the Caraites and Samaritans.” (Commentary on the Old Testament, 1973, Vol. I, The Second Book of Moses, p. 12)

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Preceding

Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #1 Matthew 26:1-2 – Two Days Before Execution

Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #2 Matthew 26:3-5 – Plotting to Seize Jesus

Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #3 Matthew 26:6-13 – A Woman to Be Remembered

Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #4 Matthew 26:14-16 – The Price of Betrayal

Matthew 26 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Last days of Jesus Christ #1 Matthew 26:1-2 – Two Days Before Execution

CHAPTER TWENTY-SIX:
THE LAST DAYS OF JESUS CHRIST

[“The Final Test”]
(Key word: Passover)

Matthew 26:1-2 – Two Days Before Execution

|| Mark 14:1a; Luke 22:1

MT26:1 Now it occurred when Jesus finished all these words[1] he told his disciples, MT26:2 “You realize that after two days the Passover takes place;[2] and, the Son of Humankind will be turned in to be executed.”[3]

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[1] These words: Or, GDSP: this discourse.

[2] The Passover takes place: Or, BER: the Passover is celebrated. It must be about Nisan 12 and the moon is waxing. Luke 22:1 adds, “… the festival of the unfermented cakes.” This was a festival lasting eight days beginning Nisan 14 at sundown (Exodus chapter 12).

[3] To be executed: The Greek is STAUROTHENAI and literally means “to be impaled on a stake” though most would prefer the Latin derivatives, “crucified.” Research the Greek STAUROO.

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Preceding

Matthew 25:31-46 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Judgment on the Realm of Heaven #4 Matthew 25:41-46

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