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Posts tagged ‘Pneuma’

Matthew 10:16-23 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Sent Forth as Sheep among Wolves

Matthew 10:16-23 – Sent Forth as Sheep among Wolves

|| Luke 10:3

MT10:16 “Look! I am sending you forth[1] as sheep[2] among wolves,[3] so be cautious as serpents[4] and innocent as doves.[5] MT10:17 Be alert among humans[6] for they will hand you over[7] to courts and in their synagogues[8] they will scourge[9] you. MT10:18 You will be brought before governors and kings as a testimony to them[10] as well as the Non-Jews. MT10:19 But, when they hand you over do not be overly concerned how or what you will say, for what you should speak[11] will be given to you in that hour. MT10:20 Because it is not you who speaks but your Father’s Pneuma[12] speaking in you. MT10:21 Even brother will betray brother[13] – and a father his child – to death. Children will take their stand against parents causing their deaths. MT10:22 You will be hated by everyone because of my name.[14] But, the one who endures completely[15] will be saved.[16] MT10:23 When they persecute you in this town, flee to another.[17] I tell you this truth: You will never complete the cities of Israel[18] before the Ascension[19] of the Son of Humankind.

[1] Sending you forth: The Greek is APOSTELLO, a form of “apostle.” An apostle is a representative.

[2] Sheep: The Greek is PROBATA and occurs over 216 times in the whole Bible. Usually used as a metaphor for believers the word occurs: Matthew, 11; Mark, 2; Luke, 2; John, 20; and only five times in the rest of the Christian Bible. Sheep are not adversarial predators and are very gregarious as a flock. They are among the earliest animals named in the Bible (Genesis 24:35; 26:14). They are helpless without a shepherd and easy prey for enemies (Numbers 27:16, 17; Jeremiah 23:4; Ezekiel 34:5, 6, 8; Micah 5:8). It is a metaphor for those defenseless and innocent (2Samuel 24:17; Psalm 44:11, 22; 95:7; 119:176; Matthew 10:6, 16; John 21:16, 17; Romans 8:36). Note Luke 10:3 uses “lambs.”

[3] Wolves: The word group wolf/wolves occurs in Moses and the Prophets, all as pictured by Jesus. See Matthew 7:15 and John 10:2. (Genesis 49:27; Jeremiah 5:6; Ezekiel 22:27; Habakkuk 1:8; Zephaniah 3:3) Under the Messianic rule the wolf changes its disposition (Isaiah 11:6; 65:25) Paul predicts wolves will work their way into the Christian flock (Acts 20:29).

[4] Cautious as serpents: The idea finds its roots right at the beginning of human creation (Genesis 3:1).The serpent (snake) occurs over 70 times in the Bible. The phrase “cautious as serpents” is also rendered: KJV: wise as serpents; NASB: shrewd as. Though the Friend of the Nazarene is guileless in Christian character, Jesus counsels PHRONIMOI a wise caution when among the enemy.

[5] Innocent as doves: The gentle bird occurs 35 times in the Bible. The bird Noah sent forth from the Ark (Genesis 8:8-12). It is sometimes associated with being blameless or without flaw (Canticles 5:2, 12; 6:9). Hosea 7:11 associates the dove with a simple-minded heart without a motive. The bird occurs nine times in the Gospels (Matthew 3:16; 10:16; 21:12; Mark 1:10; 11:15; Luke 3:22; John 1:32; 2:14, 16). The word “innocent” is also rendered: KJV: harmless; MOF: guileless. The name of the prophet Jonah means “Dove.” (See also pidgin or turtledove). Compare Psalm 55:6; Isaiah 60:8.

[6] Be alert among humans: Others render this phrase: KJV: beware of men; TCNT: be on your guard; KNX: do not put your trust in men; RIEU: mankind. Giving this counsel, we must think that our Lord followed his own advice. Compare Philippians 3:2.

[7] Hand you over: Or, KJV: they will deliver you up; TCNT: betray you.

[8] Synagogues: Jesus is talking to Jewish disciples. What he says is not meant as specific directives for all future Friends of the Nazarene. Compare Jesus’ prediction at Mark 13:9 (Compare Matthew 23:34). Note the fulfillment at Acts 5:40.

[9] Scourge: Or, BECK: whip; WEY: flog (Acts 5:40ff).

[10] A testimony to them: See the Acts of the Apostles chapter 4, 5, 7 and others for the actual fulfillment.

[11] What you should speak: This is spoken to the apostles and may not necessarily be applied to all Christians. Note the cases of Peter (Acts 5), Stephen (Acts 7), and Paul (Acts 17), inspired speeches preserved in the Christian Bible.

[12] Your Father’s Pneuma: Or, the spirit of your Father. The Greek is PNEUMA which may also mean breath or wind. The Pneuma is God’s Mind exerting mental pressure to accomplish his will. So we find Peter, for example, speaking by the Pneuma (Acts 5:3, 4).

[13] Brother will betray brother: Compare Matthew 24:10.

[14] Hated by everyone because of my name: The name “Christian” in history becomes a terrible stigma leading to an enormous number of deaths. Note Jesus does not say His Father’s Name, Jehovah, but his own, “Jesus Christ.” WEY: objects of universal hatred; WMS: because you bear my name; NEB: for your allegiance to me.

[15] The one who endures completely: The Greek TELOS is without the article and thus “an end” with regard to each individual’s endurance, often in martyrdom. Compare Matthew 24:13. The word group “endurance” occurs over 30 times in the Christian Bible. Compare (Matthew 5:10-12; 10:16-22; 24:9, 10, 39; Mark 13:9, 12, 13; Luke 21:19; Romans 2:7; 2 Corinthians 6:3-10; 12:12; 2 Thessalonians 1:4; 2 Timothy 3:10-12; Hebrews 10:36; James 5:10, 11; Revelation 1:9; Revelation 13:10; Revelation 14:12) The English word “endurance” is drawn from the root dru that is the oak tree and those “druids” as well as “trust.”

[16] Saved: There are two states in the procession of salvation: a) the initial by escape from the judgment on the world; and, b) the final by endurance unto death. See a concordance on the word group “save(d)” and “salvation.” It may be compared to being saved by a lifeguard which does not ensure a future drowning. Compare Matthew 19:25; 24:13, 22; Luke 8:2; John 3:17; 5:34; 10:9; Acts 2:40, 47; 4:12; 11:14; 15:11; 16:30, 31; Romans 5:9, 10; 8:24; 10:9.

[17] Flee to another: The Nazarene’s disciples are not to remain and battle with opposers but move into a more fruitful territory. This advice is seen in the Book of Acts (Acts 8:1, 2).

[18] Never complete the cities of Israel: Jesus has sent out his 12 apostles, and later the 70 disciples, and he tells them they will never preach to all the land of Israel before the fulfillment of Daniel 7:13.

[19] Before the Ascension: This rendering will receive considerable judgment. The Greek is ELTHE a word taken from Daniel 7:13 where the same phrase occurs in the Jewish Greek Septuagint (LXX). Judging from the context and reading of Daniel 7:13 the prophet sees the ascension of a human being to the very Throne-room of the Most High. The Greek word ELTHE and the related word ERCHOMENOM is generally rendered “coming.” However, the word also means “to go” or “leave.” The English word “ascend” means “to go up.” It has been generally misunderstood that this word infers a “coming” in the direction of those disciples on earth, when, in fact, it means the arrival in heaven to become King. Daniel 7:13 and Psalm 110:1 are often combined by Jesus in a conflate or paraphrase. Compare Matthew 22:44; 26:64; Mark 14:62; 16:19; Luke 22:69; Acts 2:33, 34; 5:31; 7:55-57; 1 Corinthians 15:24; Hebrews 10:12, 13. It is possible that Jesus actually used the Hebrew/Aramaic word athah which means to arrive and be present at a certain location.




Matthew 10:1-4 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: The Twelve Given Authority

Matthew 10:1-4 – Calling of the apostles – by Calvin

Matthew 10:5-10 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Jesus’ Orders: Territory, Theme, Trust

Matthew 10:11-15 – The Nazarene’s Commentary: Searching for the Sheep


Ezekiel 34.31 - Our Shepherd and God


God’s People are His Flock

One Shepherd


Matthew 1:18-25 – Genesis of Jesus Christ

Matthew 1:18-25 – The Genesis of Jesus Christ

MT1:18 But thus was the genesis[1] of Jesus Christ.[2] His mother Mary had been promised in marriage[3] to Joseph. Before they came together[4] she was found to be pregnant[5] from the holy Pneuma.[6] MT1:19 But, Joseph her man[7] was righteous[8] and he was unwilling to make a public spectacle[9] of Mary so he intended to release her secretly.[10] MT1:20 But, thinking about these matters, look! an angel[11] of YHWH[12] appeared to Joseph in a dream,[13] saying: “Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to receive to yourself[14] Mary your woman, for the thing generated[15] by Pneuma in her is holy. MT1:21 She will give birth to a son and you[16] [Joseph] will call his name ‘Jesus’ for he will save[17] his people[18] from their sins.”[19] MT1:22 The whole of this happened so that the things might be fulfilled as spoken through the prophet [Isaiah],[20] saying, MT1:23 “Look! The virgin[21] will be pregnant and will give birth to a son and they[22] will call his name ‘Immanuel’[23] which is translated to mean, ‘With Us The God.’” [Isaiah 7:14] MT1:24 When Joseph awakened from sleep he did as directed by the angel of YHWH and he took along his woman [to his home]; MT1:25 and Joseph did not know[24] Mary until after she gave birth to a son.[25] Joseph called his name ‘Jesus.’


[1] Genesis: The Greek is GENESIS and may be rendered “birth.”

[2] Jesus Christ: The first occurrence of this form: the title or designation combined with the name of our Lord. This form occurs 150 times in the Christian Bible, the most often in the Letter to the Romans. The phrase means “Jesus the christened one; or Jesus the Messiah; Jesus the Anointed.”

[3] Promised in marriage: Or, KJV: espoused; TCNT: engaged.

[4] Came together: Inferring sexual intercourse. TCNT: while she was still a virgin; WEY: before they were united in marriage.

[5] Pregnant: The Greek GASTRI and means literally “found in belly” as it is in many languages. Or, KJV: with child; GDSP: about to become a mother.

[6] Holy Pneuma: Or, holy spirit. This is the first occurrence of the phrase referring to the Mental or Intellectual Power of the Absolute God. That is, the invisible force or pressure by which the Creator accomplishes his will and purpose. We will use pneuma throughout as the word “spirit” in English has taken on something of the meaning of “ghost” or a spirit being. The complete phrase “holy pneuma” occurs 100 times in the Bible with the first occurrence at Psalm 51:11. It only occurs three times in the Hebrew Bible. It is most often used in the Acts of the Apostles. For details on this subject see the publication De Trinitatis Erroribus. The word “spirit” occurs 820 times in the Bible with the first occurrence at Genesis 1:2. “Spirit” is used most often in the Book of Acts. The Hebrew is ruach and is variously rendered breath and wind.

[7] Man: The Greek is ANER and may mean “husband.”

[8] Righteous: Or, “just.” He had a well-known reputation so that his character was such.

[9] Public spectacle: Or, KJV: public example; ABUV: not willing to expose.

[10] Release her secretly: Or, GDSP: break off the engagement privately; BECK: divorce her secretly. The Jewish engagement was considered a virtual marriage and thus required some formal divorce or release. It is likely their marriage was arranged by both families upon which the “engagement” began. Since this was a formal matter between families in public then a formal release was binding. Engaged couples could have sexual intercourse without this being viewed as prostitution (or, fornication). However, once doing so the man had to marry the woman, forgo divorce, and give her father a payment for damages to his virgin daughter.

[11] Angel: The first angel mentioned in the Christian Bible. The word “angel(s)” occurs 370 times in the Bible, the first at Genesis 16:7. “Angel” occurs most often in the Book of Acts. This angel is identified by Luke as Gabriel, the angel of the Book of Daniel.

[12] YHWH: The Greek is AGGELOS KYRIOU [without the article] and would surely be a Hebraism in Matthew’s Gospel. Though it should read “angel of (the) Lord” there is a reasonable possibility that the Tetragram YHWH might occur here. There is no question YHWH occurred in the Hebrew Bible and there is a possibility YHWH occurs in some portions of the Christian Bible. Hereafter we will add YHWH in brackets when the “Lord” under consideration is clearly Yahweh or Jehovah.

[13] Dream: The first occurrence of the word in the Christian Bible. The word group occurs 125 times with the first at Genesis 20:3 and most often in the Book of Genesis. There is an interesting statement at Job 7:14; 33:15.

[14] Receive to yourself: Or, NEB: to take Mary home. Note John 14:3 and the same Greek word.

[15] Generated: The Greek is GENNETHEN and is rendered: KJV: conceived; NOR: expect Child within.

[16] You: The Greek is singular referring specifically to Joseph.

[17] He will save: The meaning of “Jesus” is “Yahweh Saves.”

[18] His people: Note it is “his people” indicating some previous relationship with Israel as the “angel of Yahweh.” (Compare Daniel 12:1; Exodus 23:23)

[19] Sins: The key purpose of Messiah’s birth is as a Sin-Bearer (Consider Isaiah chapter 53). Nothing in the name Jesus emphasis any other reason than he will be the main instrument in the forgiveness of the sins of the Jews. Nothing here points to mankind in general. The interpretation of “his people” (TON LAON) could refer to those in the New Israel, the Community of the Saints.

[20] Spoken through the prophet [Isaiah]: That is Isaiah 7:14. NOTE: All true quotes are in BLUE. Hebraisms, paraphrases, allusions or conflates are in GREEN. The words of Jesus are in RED.

[21] Virgin: The Greek is PARTHENOS and reminds one of the Parthenon in Athens. The Greek word PARTHENOS is that one chosen by the Jewish scribes in the third century BC when translating the Hebrew of Isaiah 7:14.

[22] They: Indicating both Joseph and Mary.

[23] Immanuel: See Isaiah 8:8. Possibly one of the sons of Isaiah whose name was fulfilled in the context of Isaiah 8:10 where the Hebrew has the name in the phrase. The Jewish Greek Bible, the Septuagint (LXX), “Yehowah God is with us.”

[24] Did not know: Or, PME: had no intercourse with her. Compare Genesis 4:1 and compare the Greek language with 1 Corinthians 7:1. Mary remained a “virgin” until after the birth of Jesus when she bore four more sons and an unknown number of daughters (Matthew 12:46; 13:55).

[25] Son: KJV: “firstborn son.” (Compare Luke 2:7)

This text of the Gospel of Matthew is a new version, the 21st Century Version of the Christian Scriptures [NCMM], as an additional part of Nazarene Commentary 2000©. This rendering by Mark Heber Miller may be considered a literal version with limited paraphrase.


BS notes:

Iesou => Jesus = “Hail Zeus”, the name given to the Nazarene Jew at the Council of Nicaea in 325 to come to terms with the three-headed greek-roman gods. Up until about 360, theological debates mainly dealt with the divinity of the son, which had to be the seame one as the son-god of the Romans and the Greeks. The worshipping of that son and the use of the statues in the community should be allowed for all the sorts of worshippers, so that the market vendors could sell their statues at liberty to any worshipper. Jeshua, Joshua (/ˈɒʃə/) or Jehoshua (Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Yĕhôshúa or Hebrew: יֵשׁוּעַ Yĕshúa; Aramaic: ܝܫܘܥIsho; Greek: Ἰησοῦς, Arabic: يوشع بن نونYūshaʿ ibn Nūn, Turkish: Yuşa) Yeshua (ישוע, with vowel pointing יֵשׁוּעַyēšūă‘ in Hebrew) which means “Jehovah saves/Jehovah is salvation” or “the Help(ipa) from Jehovah” or “From Jehovah comes salvation”, for the politicians had to become the second person of their tri-une godhead.  The main god Zeus (Ancient Greek: Ζεύς) had to be the “Father of Gods and men” (πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε, patḕr andrōn te theōn te) and as such should be the god of Greeks, Romans and Christians because Jupiter (Latin: Iuppiter; /ˈjʊpɪtɛr/; genitive case: Iovis; /ˈjɔːvɪs/) or Jove is the king of the gods and the god of sky and thunder in myth.

By the time of the 4° Century CE lots of false teachers had managed to introduce the Roman teachings of their gods back into the teachings of their followers. Lots of people found it easier to adapt to the new religion because it had adapted itself to their faith. for them it was than much easier to accept Jesus to be the King of kings, to be the god of light, the god of thunder, the god of miracles, the god of enlightenment, etc.


Preceding articles:

  1. The Advent of the saviour to Roman oppression
  2. Story of Jesus’ birth begins long before the New Testament
  3. Nazarene Commentary to Zechariah and Elizabeth
  4. Nazarene Commentary to An Angel Appearing to a Priest
  5. Nazarene Commentary to Struck Dumb For Disbelief
  6. Nazarene Commentary to Elizabeth Pregnant
  7. Nazarene Commentary Luke 1:46-56 – Mary Magnifies God
  8. Nazarene Commentary Luke 1:57-66 – Elizabeth Gives Birth To John
  9. Nazarene Commentary Luke 1:67-80 – Zechariah’s Prophecy
  10. Nazarene Commentary Luke 2:8-14 – Angels and Shepherds in the Night
  11. Nazarene Commentary Luke 2:15-20 – Shepherds Find the Infant Christ
  12. With child and righteousness greater than the law
  13. Matthew 1:1-17 The Genealogy of Jesus Christ
  14. Nazarene Commentary Luke 2:21-24 – Presenting the Baby to God
  15. Nazarene Commentary Luke 2:25-35 – Simeon’s Blessing and Warning
  16. Nazarene Commentary Luke 2:36-38 – Anna’s Thanks before Those Waiting
  17. Nazarene Commentary Luke 2:39-40 – The Young Child Grows
  18. Nazarene Commentary Luke 2:41-50 – Twelve Year Old Jesus in the Temple

Upcoming articles:

  1. Matthew 2:1-6 – Astrologers and Priests in a Satanic Plot
  2. Matthew 2:7-12 – Pawns of Herod, the Magi Find the ‘Child’
  3. Matthew 2:13-15 – Escaping the Slaughter by a Flight to Egypt
  4. Matthew 2:16-18 – Slaughter of the Innocents


English: Mother Mary with the Holy Child Jesus...

Mother Mary with the Holy Child Jesus Christ, Oil/canvas, 1913 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


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  2. Jesus begotten Son of God #2 Christmas and pagan rites
  3. Christmas customs – Are They Christian?
  4. Jesus begotten Son of God #3 Messiah or Anointed one
  5. Jesus begotten Son of God #14 Beloved Preminent Son and Mediator originating in Mary
  6. The wrong hero
  7. Why think that (2) … Jesus claimed to be something special
  8. A season of gifts
  9. God’s Special Gift
  10. Christmas, Saturnalia and the birth of Jesus
  11. Nativity scene of the birth of the Bill of Rights
  12. Preexistence in the Divine purpose and Trinity
  13. Around pre-existence of Christ
  14. The radiance of God’s glory and the counsellor
  15. Yeshua a man with a special personality
  16. Jesus and his God


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  • Did the early church invent the divinity of Jesus over a long period of time? (
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Nazarene Commentary Mark 1:9-11 – An Approved Son Baptized

The Beginning of the Evangel, by Mark

Chapter One:

Preparations for the Appointed time

Continuation of Mark 1:1-8 – The Beginning of the Good News

Mark 1:9-11 – An Approved Son Baptized

Matthew 3:13-17[1]

MK1:9It was at this moment that Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan. MK1:10And instantly on rising up out of the water he saw the sky parting, and the Pneuma descending like a dove upon him. MK1:11Then a Voice came from the sky, saying: “You are My beloved Son whom I approve.”


[1] Matthew 3:13-17: For details see notes in Nazarene Commentary 2000 on Matthew.


God looks down from heaven and approves not Himself but His son, the man Jeshua, Jesus Christ from Nazareth, son of Joseph and Mary (Miriam/Myriam/Maria). Those who were at the place where Jesus was baptised could clearly hear the Most High speaking about that man, of flesh and blood, whom they could see.



Nazarene Commentary Mark 1:1-8 – The Beginning of the Good News

Nazarene Commentary Luke 3:15-17 – The Baptisms of the One Coming

Nazarene Commentary Luke 3:18-20 – John’s Teaching and Imprisonment

Nazarene Commentary Luke 3:21-23 – The Baptism of Christ

Nazarene Commentary Matthew 3:13-17 – Jesus Declared God’s Son at His Baptism



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Nazarene Commentary Matthew 3:13-17 – Jesus Declared God’s Son at His Baptism

Matthew 3:13-17 – Jesus Declared God’s Son at His Baptism

Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21, 22; John 1:31-34

MT3:13 Then Jesus came to the Jordan from Galilee, approaching John to be baptized by him. MT3:14 But John tried to prevent him, saying, “I need to be baptized by you and yet you come to me?” MT3:15 Jesus replied and said to him, “Let it be this time for in this way it is proper for us to fulfill all righteousness.”[1] Then John stopped resisting. MT3:16 Having been baptized, and rising from the water, immediately, look! the skies[2] were opened up. Jesus saw God’s Pneuma[3] descending as if a dove[4] lighting[5] upon him. MT3:17 Look! a Voice[6] out of the Sky, saying, “This is my beloved Son[7] in whom I am well pleased.”[8]


[1]Fulfill all righteousness: In order to “fulfill all righteousness” it is necessary to be baptized after our Lord’s example.

[2]Skies: Or, heavens. The Greek word OURANOI (heavens) is used in a variety of ways and judging from the context here where the dove flies down to light on Jesus it must be that atmosphere were birds fly (Genesis 1:7, 20).

[3]Pneuma: Or, spirit; breath; wind. The force or pressure which emanates from God’s Mind. This is the “anointing” of Isaiah 61:1 (Luke 4:16). Compare also Isaiah 11:1-3

[4]Dove: The bird Noah released from the Ark.

[5]Lighting: Or, ALF: coming; KNX: resting. Here the Greek ERKHOMENON means arrived.

[6]Voice: The first of three times the actual Voice of God is heard, each in the presence of Jesus. The same One who speaks at Psalm 2:7 and Psalm 110:4. As God spoke to the first perfect man, Adam, He now speaks to this second Man.

[7]Son: We may suggest that the one here named Jesus becomes God’s “Son” in several ways: 1. Creation; 2. Birth as Perfect Man; spirit-begotten Child; 4. by resurrection; and, by enthronement in the heavens.

[8]Well pleased: The language is very similar to Isaiah 42:1.


Francesco Albani's The Baptism of Christ

Francesco Albani’s The Baptism of Christ (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It was possible for all the people standing around John the Baptist and his cousin Jesus (Jeshua) to see two men of flesh and blood, standing in the water. Above them appeared a pigeon in an incredible light, like lightening. They also heard a Voice clearly saying “This is my beloved Son”. It can well be that many did not know Whose Voice it was and what it meant that Jesus was the son of the One speaking. In the Old Testament we are told that the Elohim Hashem Jehovah does not tell lies. therefore we should well take into account that God did not tell that it was Him having come down on the earth, but He said that it was His son.

“And a voice from heaven said, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.”” (Matthew 3:17 NIV)

“God is not a man, that he should lie, nor a son of man, that he should change his mind. Does he speak and then not act? Does he promise and not fulfil?” (Numbers 23:19 NIV)

“Once for all, I have sworn by my holiness—and I will not lie to David—” (Psalms 89:35 NIV)

“He who is the Glory of Israel does not lie or change his mind; for he is not a man, that he should change his mind.”” (1 Samuel 15:29 NIV)

“a faith and knowledge resting on the hope of eternal life, which God, who does not lie, promised before the beginning of time,” (Titus 1:2 NIV)

“God did this so that, by two unchangeable things in which it is impossible for God to lie, we who have fled to take hold of the hope offered to us may be greatly encouraged.” (Hebrews 6:18 NIV)

In case Jesus would have been God those who saw him would have fallen death, because nobody can see God and live, according to the Word of God. Nobody can see God, but we can hear Him, and at the baptism of Christ Jesus they clearly heard what He said. are you willing to believe what God said and worship the real Only One God Who we must worship in spirit and truth?

“But,” he said, “you cannot see my face, for no-one may see me and live.”” (Exodus 33:20 NIV)

“And you said, “The LORD our God has shown us his glory and his majesty, and we have heard his voice from the fire. Today we have seen that a man can live even if God speaks with him.” (Deuteronomy 5:24 NIV)

“God is spirit, and his worshippers must worship in spirit and in truth.”” (John 4:24 NIV)




Nazarene Commentary Luke 3:15-17 – The Baptisms of the One Coming

Nazarene Commentary Luke 3:21-23 – The Baptism of Christ



  1. On the Nature of Christ
  2. The Naturalness of Jesus
  3. Anointing of Christ as Prophetic Rehearsal of the Burial rites
  4. Church sent into the world
  5. Only One God
  6. God of gods
  7. God is one
  8. Attributes to God
  9. Seeing or not seeing and willingness to find God
  10. Christ begotten through the power of the Holy Spirit
  11. Jesus begotten Son of God #6 Anointed Son of God, Adam and Abraham
  12. Jesus begotten Son of God #11 Existence and Genesis Raising up
  13. Jesus begotten Son of God #14 Beloved Preminent Son and Mediator originating in Mary
  14. Jesus Messiah
  15. Jesus and his God
  16. The high calling of God in Christ Jesus
  17. On the Nature of Christ
  18. Servant of his Father
  19. In the death of Christ, the son of God, is glorification
  20. People Seeking for God 7 The Lord and lords
  21. Being Religious and Spiritual 7 Transcendence to become one
  22. Trusting, Faith, Calling and Ascribing to Jehovah #14 Prayer #12 The other name
  23. A Messiah to die
  24. Jesus is the Son of God but Not God the Son


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Nazarene Commentary Luke 3:21-23 – The Baptism of Christ

Luke 3:21-23 – The Baptism of Christ

Matthew 3:13-17;[1] Mark 1:9-11[2]

English: John the Baptist baptizing Christ

John the Baptist baptizing Christ (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

LK3:21 Now it happened during the time that time when all the people were being baptized Jesus also was baptized.[3] While he was praying the sky opened up, LK3:22 and the holy Pneuma descended upon Jesus in the bodily shape of a dove. Then a Voice came out of the sky, “You are my beloved Son! I confirm you!”[4] LK3:23 And so when Jesus began his work he was about thirty years old,[5] and according to others the son of Joseph,[6] the son of Heli…


[1] Matthew 3:13-17: For details see notes in Nazarene Commentary 2000 on Matthew.

[2] Mark 1:9-11: For details see notes in Nazarene Commentary 2000 on Mark.

[3] Jesus also was baptized: Luke does not mean Jesus was baptized among a throng, but that during this period Jesus came privately to John to be baptized. The crowds were not to witness the anointing of Messiah.

[4] I confirm you:Or, well pleased, take delight, my chosen, approved. The Greek is EU-DOCESA [Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance #2106 think well, approve, approbate]

[5] About thirty years old: Either he was about to turn 30 or had recently turned 30.

[6] The son of Joseph: As far as most people were concerned Joseph was the father of Jesus.



Nazarene Commentary Luke 3:1, 2 – Factual Data

Nazarene Commentary Luke 3:3-6 – John Preaches Baptism of Repentance

Nazarene Commentary Luke 3:7-9 – Vipers, Repent!

Nazarene Commentary Luke 3:10-14 – “What Shall We Do?”

Nazarene Commentary Luke 3:15-17 – The Baptisms of the One Coming

Nazarene Commentary Luke 3:18-20 – John’s Teaching and Imprisonment


Clearly the One Who does not tell lies confirms the position of the man in the water, who was baptised by John the Baptist. Many who witnessed this occasion heard also the voice of God, who said Jesus was His “Beloved son“. God did not say “This is me”.

God, Who is a Spirit and has no blood, no flesh and no bones, can not be seen by man or they would die. Jesus was seen by many, and had flesh, blood and bones.


Additional reading:

  1. Nazarene Commentary Mark 1:1-8 – The Beginning of the Good News
  2. Seeing or not seeing and willingness to find God
  3. Christ begotten through the power of the Holy Spirit
  4. Jesus begotten Son of God #6 Anointed Son of God, Adam and Abraham
  5. Jesus begotten Son of God #11 Existence and Genesis Raising up
  6. Jesus begotten Son of God #14 Beloved Preminent Son and Mediator originating in Mary
  7. Jesus Messiah
  8. Jesus and his God
  9. The high calling of God in Christ Jesus
  10. On the Nature of Christ
  11. Servant of his Father
  12. In the death of Christ, the son of God, is glorification
  13. People Seeking for God 7 The Lord and lords
  14. Being Religious and Spiritual 7 Transcendence to become one
  15. Trusting, Faith, Calling and Ascribing to Jehovah #14 Prayer #12 The other name
  16. A Messiah to die
  17. God of gods
  18. God is one
  19. Only One God
  20. Attributes to God
  21. No Other Name (But Jesus)


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Nazarene Commentary Luke 1:26-38 – Gabriel’s Appearance to Mary

Luke 1:26-38 – Gabriel’s Appearance to Mary

LK1:26 Now in Elizabeth’s sixth month of pregnancy the angel Gabriel was sent from God to the village of Galilee called Nazareth, LK1:27 to a virgin[1] [Isaiah 7:14] promised in marriage to a man named Joseph of David’s House. And the name of the virgin was Mary.[2] LK1:28 Approaching Mary, Gabriel said to her: “Greetings, favored one! The LORD is with you!” LK1:29 At this statement Mary was very puzzled and kept wondering what this greeting meant. LK1:30 Then the angel Gabriel said to Mary: “Do not be frightened, Mary, for you have found favor with God. LK1:31 And, behold, you will conceive in your womb and will give birth to a son, and you will give him the name Jesus.[3] LK1:32 He will become a renowned person[4] and will be called a son of the Most High.[5] [Psalm 82:6] YHWH The God[6] will give to him David’s throne,[7] [Isaiah 9:7] LK1:33 and he will reign over Jacob’s House throughout the Ages. There will never be an end to his kingdom.” [Daniel 2:44] LK1:34 But in response Mary said to the angel Gabriel: “How can this be[8] since I have never known a man?” LK1:35 So the angel answered her: “Holy Pneuma[9] will come over you and the Most High’s power will overshadow you. As a result the One to be born will be also called Holy, God’s Son.[10] [Psalm 89:26] LK1:36 Now, look, your relative Elizabeth has also conceived a son in her old age and this is now the sixth month of her so-called barrenness. LK1:37 For no message from God is impossible.”[11] [Genesis 18:14] LK1:38 Then Mary said: “Look, YHWH’s slave![12] May it all take place with me just as you say!” And the angel Gabriel left her.

[1] Virgin: Possibly borrowed from Isaiah 7:14 where a PARTHENON is foretold. For details see notes in Nazarene Commentary 2000 on Matthew 1:23.

[2] Mary: For details see notes in Nazarene Commentary 2000 on Matthew.

[3] Jesus: The traditional form of the Greek IESOUS here. The Hebrew form is Yeshua {BS note: contemporary writing in many languages: Jeshua} and means “Yehowah is Salvation.” It is the same as the name Joshua. Some argue over the exact form. Accents in pronunciation of foreign languages persist no matter the tongue. It seems unreasonable to many that God would insist every word translated from the Hebrew Bible must be spoken in a Hebrew accent. Even the accents of Jews differed in the 1st Century just as they do in English and Spanish in different places.

[4] Renowned person: Or, great.

[5] A son of the Most High: Or, [the] Most High’s Son, Son of the Highest, Son of the Most High. The Greek is HUIOS YPSISTOU with the article. Compare a similar phrase at Psalm 82:6.

[6] YHWH The God: The Greek is KYRIOS HO THEOS without the article and may indicate the Tetragram originally occurred here.

[7] David’s throne: An echo of Isaiah 9:7. Compare also 2 Samuel 7:12; Psalm 132:11; Jeremiah 23:5.

[8] How can this be: Note Mary is not rebuked for her question while Zechariah was.

[9] Holy Pneuma: Or, holy spirit. Note the Pneuma is paralleled with God’s “power.” For details see notes in Nazarene Commentary 2000 on Holy Pneuma; compare 1 Corinthians 2:16.

[10] God’s Son: Or, the Son of God. The Greek is HUIOS THEOU with the article. Compare Psalm 2:7; 89:26.

[11] For no message from God is impossible: Or, word, declaration. It echoes Genesis 18:14. [Psalm 115:3]

[12] YHWH’s slave: Or, handmaid. The Greek is DOULE KYRIOU.


Preceding articles:

Nazarene Commentary to Elizabeth Pregnant

Story of Jesus’ birth begins long before the New Testament

Next: Nazarene Commentary Luke 1:39-45 – Mary Visits Elizabeth


File:Piero della Francesca 002.jpg

Fresco cycle of the “Legend of the Holy Cross” in the choir of San Francesco in Arezzo. Detail: Annunciation – Piero della Francesca (1420–1492) – The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002.

  • Mary and the Angel Gabriel (
    while the responsibility that Mary was facing was indeed daunting, while the questions about her reputation and the reaction of Joseph indeed induced anxiety, she also felt the joy and humble gratitude that God had chosen her to be the one to have the honor of giving birth to the long-awaited Messiah. This, along with the encouragement of Gabriel and later Elizabeth, were gifts from God that helped her bear the burden. The revelation by dream to Joseph about how the child was conceived added the final and perhaps most necessary support, for Joseph would now provide for their everyday needs and social covering.
    Mary is betrothed to Joseph and has pledged herself to him. To break any vow under Mosaic Law is serious sin. Since betrothal was more than our engagement, it was the preliminary part of the marriage process, to break that vow was doubly serious. Legally, only the husband could break it by a bill of divorce, and the wife’s parents could insist on him paying a fine for doing so.
    While the KJV translates that as “virgin” in four of the seven times it appears in the Old Testament, the other three times it is translated as “maid” or “damsel”: in other words any young woman who has reached marriageable age, or even one who is newly married. Apparently, it is the latter meaning that most Jews give to this verse.Therefore Mary would not have expected the angel’s answer, that the child would be born of the Holy Spirit. To her the only answers appear to violate the Law or at least do something unconventional. At best, perhaps the answer she was hoping for, Joseph would have to agree to shorten the betrothal period and move up the marriage. However, to many people, that would still be scandalous, for what other reason to do so besides Mary’s obvious pregnancy in a few months?
  • An Angel named Gabriel. (
    Mary must have been a young woman of incredible faith. I once heard that we don’t know for sure that Mary was the first young girl that God had picked as the mother of Jesus, she may have just been the first one that accepted what God had asked. Just a teenager, engaged to be married, and given a message directly from God. From an angel.Far too often, we don’t hear when God is speaking to us. We are all sent messages from him, we need to learn to listen. The message might not be as world-changing- or even life-changing – as the message Mary got that day, but if God is trying to talk to us, we should listen.
  • Angels Spoke to Mary and Joseph (
    Joseph learned of Mary’s pregnancy and decided to divorce her quietly, but an angel visited Joseph and encouraged him to follow God’s plan and let the marriage take place as planned. God’s plan was far greater than Joseph’s plan.What were Mary and Joseph’s roles in God’s plan? God had chosen Mary and Joseph to be the earthly parents of Jesus. The baby Jesus fulfilled the prophecies about the Messiah in Isaiah 7:14. This was one of many Old Testament prophecies which Jesus fulfilled.
  • A Christmas Story – Day #1 – Isaiah 40:1-11 And Luke 1:26-38 (
    3 The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.
    4 Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain:
    5 And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.
  • Messianic Prophecies (

    Following her initial fear and reasoning she made that profound statement of surrender, “Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word.” She was not only fully surrendered to the will of God, but she was ready also! Was not her’s the attitude every true child of God should have at all times?  Approximately 33 years later, her Son would utter a similar prayer “Father not my will but Thy will be done.”  Let’s unify the two and pray today, ” Be it unto me according to Thy word, not  my will, but Thy will be done.”

  • Mary Did You Know? (
    remember Zechariah was rendered speechless for questioning Gabriel’s message from God.  I find it interesting; Mary asked the same question as Zechariah.  How can this be?  Zechariah and Elizabeth were old.  Mary was a virgin.  Both life altering decrees were impossible apart from a miracle.  The priest was dumb struck and the girl was given an explanation.  Doesn’t it make you wonder why Zechariah was dealt with so severely and Mary was given such grace?  Did it have to do with the fact that Zechariah had walked and talked with God for so long, and Mary was so young? God knows how He must deal with each of His children.  He allows whatever will bring the most glory to Him.
  • An Angel’s Conversation (
    before she was formed in the womb Yahweh knew her and she has been carved and purposed for this end, she is just beginning to know It, but it wasn’t a secret to all of us who serves the father directly on the throne
    +”we often guide men to whom they will marry , since heaven has a plan for every of their marriages but you know them, the fall has complicate things, they all choose whomsoever and how so ever, that is why so much chaos exist in their marriages “whaoh! But why can’t someone tell them about it” Lamented Felixa
  • Foretold & Fulfilled: A Youth Christmas Program (
    The story of Jesus’ birth begins long before the New Testament. In fact, it goes back all the way before creation (Ephesians 1:4). Today’s youth program begins in the Garden of Eden, where right after the fall into sin, God reveals the first promise of the coming Savior to Adam (Genesis 3:15). We continue by hearing the promise of the Savior’s birth to Abraham (Genesis 12, 17, & 22), Moses (Deuteronomy 18), David (2 Samuel 7, Psalm 132), the Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Micah, and Malachi), and Mary (Luke 1:26—38). We then behold the fulfillment of the promise with the birth of our Lord in Bethlehem (Luke 2). The program concludes with words from St. Paul from Acts 13, who declares the fulfillment of all the Old Testament promises in Jesus.
  • The Events Surrounding the Birth of Christ (
    Before Jesus was to be born John the Baptist had to be born first. He would be the forerunner for Christ, the coming Messiah preaching a message of repentance. This is often overlooked during the Christmas season.

Nazarene Acts of the Apostles Chapter 2 v14-20 Pentecostal Sermon

Acts 2:14-21 – Peter Begins his Pentecostal Sermon

AC2:14 Now Peter rose with the eleven[1] and raised his voice, declaring to them: “Men, Jews,[2] and all those dwelling in Jerusalem, all of you know this, listen to my words! AC2:15 For these men are not drunk[3] as you suppose, for it is only nine in the morning!

AC2:16 This is what was spoken by the prophet Joel[4] AC2:17 and what will occur in the Last Days:[5] ‘The God says, “I will pour out my Pneuma on all flesh, and your sons and daughters will prophesy.[6] Also, your young men will see visions,[7] and your elders will dream dreams.[8]

AC2:18 And in those days I will pour my Pneuma upon my male slaves and female slaves, and they will prophesy. AC2:19 And I will give wonders in the heavens above, and on signs on the earth below[9] – blood and fire and columns of smoke.[10]
AC2:20 The sun will be transformed into darkness and the moon into blood[11] – before the arrival of the Day of the great and glorious Supreme Being.[12] AC2:21 Then everyone whoever calls upon the Name of YHWH will be saved.”’”[13] [Joel 2:28-32 LXX]


Continuation of: Nazarene Acts of the Apostles Chapter 2 v1-13 Working Spirit

Continued with: Nazarene Acts of the Apostles Chapter 2 v23-26 The Choice of Matthias

[1] Now Peter rose with the eleven: Likely indicating only these twelve were present.

[2] Men, Jews: Here the Greek is ANDRES IOUDIOI [males, Jews] because the crowd has already been identified as “pious Jewish men” from all over the world. Peter is talking to Jewish men. Compare also Acts 2:22.

[3] These men are not drunk: The Greek is masculine suggesting Peter speaks of the eleven male apostles who have been accused of drunkenness.

[4] Spoken by the prophet Joel: Peter now quotes from Joel 2:28-32. Most think he draws upon the LXX, though it is also clear Peter is doing this from memory and so there are slight paraphrases here or there.

[5] What will occur in the Last Days: Most versions place the quotes before “last days” but this does not occur in Joel. The solution may be that “last days” are Peter’s own words. Only about a month and a half before Peter and three other apostles asked Jesus about “the end.” [Matthew 24:3] Jesus continues to outline what will happen at the “desolation of Jerusalem.” In the Christian Bible the term “last days” is always used of the end of the Jewish Temple period. The phrase only occurs at 2 Timothy 3:1, Hebrews 1:1, James 5:3, and 2 Peter 3:3. Compare also Hebrews 9:26 and Jude 18. For more details on last days see Nazarene Commentary 2000© on Revelation.

[6] Your sons and daughters will prophesy: That is, Jewish children. The words “prophet” and “prophesy” have a wide range of meaning but generally refer to speaking before others. For details see notes on 1 Corinthians 12:28. Both men and women may “prophesy” but see Paul’s restrictions in 1 Corinthians 11, 14, and 1 Timothy 2. See notes on Acts 21:9. On Christian prophets in Acts see Acts 11:27; 13:1; 15:32; 21:10.

[7] Young men will see visions: While both men and women “prophesy”, it is young men who are foretold to see “visions.” The application of Joel’s words to this crowd of Jewish men must have moved their hearts toward their sons and daughters who they could see so blest. Indeed, just that is what happened when thousands of them returned home – now disciples of Jesus Christ. See “vision” in Acts 9:10, 12; 10:3, 17, 19; 11:5; 12:9; 16:9, 10; 18:9. A vision is generally understood to be a daytime trance experience, while dreams occur during sleep.

[8] Your elders will dream dreams: Or, older men. There is no case of such a “dream” mentioned in the Christian Bible. The word “dream(s)” occurs 126 times in the Bible, first at Genesis 20:3 and most often in the two books Genesis and Daniel. Of particular interest are Job 7:14 and Job 33:15, 16. In the Christian Bible dreams occur at Matthew 1:20; 2:12, 13, 19, 22; 27:19.

[9] Wonders in the heavens above, and on signs on the earth below: Peter, in quoting Joel to these Jewish men, has mentioned the good news. Now he proceeds to the bad news – the coming doom on Jerusalem. These heavenly wonders and earthly signs will be described in the following phrases. Compare the Nazarene’s own warning in notes on Matthew 24:15 and Luke 21:24. Josephus records similar phenomena upon Jerusalem in 70 AD.

[10] Blood and fire and columns of smoke: Whether the “blood” refers to Jewish blood shed at the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD, or to the color of the moon when veiled in smoke is a matter for interpretation. In the Roman conquest of Jerusalem in 70 AD one million people died, so indeed, blood ran in the streets, and great columns of smoke blocked out moon and sun.

[11] The sun will be transformed into darkness and the moon into blood: Compare similar language from the Nazarene at Matthew 24:29 where similar images apply to both the desolation of Jerusalem and to signs appearing before the Return of Christ. [Mark 13:24]

[12] Day of the great and glorious Supreme Being: The phrase “Day of the Master,” or, “Day of Jehovah” is used for a number of periods, including the “Day of Wrath” in Revelation. [Revelation 6:17] The Hebrew Text of Joel – and likely original LXX translations – has YHWH, but the Greek here does not precisely call for it. On the designation “Day of Yehowah” see Isaiah 13:6-10 and Amos 5:18, 20. Joel the prophet mentions it several times. [Joel 1:15; 2:1, 11; 3:14] As does Zephaniah 1:7, 8, 14, 18; 2:2, 3. The Jews were very familiar with Malachi 4:5.

  • Pentecost, What’s That? (
    Pentecost in the Old Testament was not a religion. It was a feast, a celebration. Israelites were told to remember their bondage in Egypt and their freedom from slavery.
    It was a shadow of what was going to happen, is happening today! Pentecost didn’t end in Acts 2. It is happening today! People prophecy and are filled with God’s Spirit today.
  • Unstoppable Faith (
    In the beginning of the book of Acts, Jesus goes back up into Heaven and the apostles are filled with the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. This is their incredible experience that truly sets them on fire. They go out and start preaching and spreading the word and performing these incredible miracles in Jesus’s name.However, as is almost always the case, the apostles were almost immediately met with opposition from people who wanted to stop them.
  • “It’s only nine in the morning!” (
    Peter is certainly one of the Bible’s most colorful characters. He is rash and passionate, human and sometimes almost divine (see walking on water). However, through it all Peter is given a double edged sword with his words. Here after pentecost some who were watching thought the apostles might be drunk. Another man might have quoted scripture about the perils of too much wine, but not Peter. His simple response is that it’s just too early in the day. What a great line! However, Peter is not just about wit; he is about to deliver one of the most effective sermons since one that occurred on a mound.
  • For many it seems not easy to understand that it was God who brought insight in Jesus his pupils. In the article The Holy Spirit-Empowered Apostles (on the writer rightly remembers the promise of the Nazarene Jesus (Jeshua) to his followers. But he misunderstands that Jesus, who is the son of God and the Messiah, would become the mediator between men and God and that it was he (Jeshua or Jesus Christ) who had demanded his Father (Jehovah, the Only One God) to send a “Comforter”. The writer of the article says “It is here that Jesus completes His gospels through the Holy Spirit by filling His disciples hearts with the remainder of the knowledge that He wants all of God’s children to know in order to pursue a path of righteousness and a life filled with God moments…” But it is not Christ Jesus who fills the hearts and minds of the apostles. That is the work of the Holy Spirit: the Power of God. it was God and not Christ who enlightened the apostles and gave them the power to go out in the world to preach the Gospel of the coming Kingdom of God.
  • Acts of the Apostles (
    Special attention is given to the Promise of the Father regarding the apostles being baptized by the Holy Spirit, who would empower them as witnesses for Christ in Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria and even to the end of the earth (1-8).
  • Links to OT prophecies in Peter’s sermon in Acts 2 (
    At Post Tenebras Lux Andrew G discussed Acts 2:17, where the apostle Peter, while addressing the Jews at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, quoted from a prophecy of Joel, beginning his quotation using the words of Isaiah rather than those of Joel.
    Luke probably included this subtle link to Isaiah 2:2 in his account of Peter’s message on Pentecost to suggest that Isaiah 2:1-3 was fulfilled, when Jesus ascended to heaven, where he was exalted and “made Christ” by God. [Acts 2:36] Being “made Christ” implied that Jesus was given a perpetual throne, in Jerusalem, reigning over all Israel, like David, and that Jerusalem and mount Zion were raised up, and “established in the top of the mountains, above the hills,” (in heaven, and in a spiritual sense) according to Isaiah’s prophecy. After Pentecost, the Jerusalem to which OT prophecy applies is the heavenly city. This is confirmed in other New Testament scriptures. [Galatians 4:26, Hebrews 12:22] Paul taught that believers are “raised up together” and “sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus.” [Ephesians 2:6]
    Isaiah 2, Joel 2, Acts 2, and the Eschatological Temple of the Church
    Concerning this substitution of the phrase “in the last days” and to prophecy to which it alludes, G.K. Beale writes, “Thus, Peter appears to interpret the Spirit’s coming at Pentecost upon the Christian community in fulfillment of Joel also to be the beginning fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy of the end-time temple, under the influence of which the nations would come.”[3] The outpouring of the Spirit at Pentecost therefore is seen to be the official inauguration of the end-times temple-building project.
  • The Books of the New Testament (
    The Acts was written by Luke the Evangelist; it is a narration of the Apostles’ work, which he wrote to tell how the Church spread rapidly throughout the world.
  • Acts of the Apostles…chapter Nine…part Three (
    The accounts in the epistles add some details to Acts and omit others. The accounts are complementary and not contradictory. Luke’s work is historically accurate an independent account, not simply copied from Galatians or 2 Corinthians. The different purposes of Luke and Paul affect the selection and shaping of the facts of the Damascus-Arabia episode. In Galatians, Paul’s primary concern is to establish the fact of his apostolic authority as coming directly from Christ…Galatians 1:11-12…The details of his Damascus and Arabian missionary activities are irrelevant, though he mentions them in passing…
  • Acts of the Apostles…chapter Nine…part Four (
    Later, when Barnabas needs assistance in building the church in the Antioch area, he goes to Tarsus to find Paul, and brings him to Antioch..Acts 11:25-26.. From then on, Paul becomes the central focus of Acts…
  • Intro to the Book of Acts and the choosing of Judas’ replacement (
    The disciples are in obedience, they are in fellowship, and they are in prayer.”
    Peter feels called to stand up and make the case that they now should allow God to choose a successor to Judas Iscariot. Notice that this is the first time in the Bible that we see Peter quote Scripture. He is now relying on the Word of God to steer him through ministry just like Jesus had demonstrated through His earthly ministry and had taught them to do.

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